Table 1.

Characteristics of Operating Engineers (N = 357)a

VariablesTotal N = 357 (100%)Education only N = 91 (25.5%)Education and texts N = 86 (24.1%)Education and mailed sunscreen N = 87 (24.4%)Education, texts, and mailed sunscreen N = 93 (26.1%)
Variables with meansMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Age (n = 355)44.2 (10.5)45.1 (10.2)44.7 (10.3)43.7 (11.2)43.4 (10.5)
Physical activity score (population mean = 40.8; n = 356)41.9 (5.5)41.9 (6.1)41.4 (4.9)42.5 (5.8)41.9 (5.2)
MOS Sleep scale (population mean = 71.4; n = 356)71.4 (16.6)71.3 (17.7)71.2 (16.8)71.7 (16.6)71.5 (15.4)
About how many times in your life do you recall having had a sunburn severe enough to cause your skin to blister? (n = 351)6.1 (12.9)7.0 (16.8)7.5 (16.9)5.3 (7.8)4.7 (6.7)
Variables with percentagesN (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)
Total357 (100.0)91 (25.5)86 (24.1)87 (24.4)93 (26.1)
Demographics
 Sex (n = 355)
  Male325 (91.6)82 (90.1)79 (91.9)77 (90.6)87 (93.6)
 Race (n = 355)
  Non-Hispanic white318 (89.6)80 (87.9)74 (86.1)76 (88.4)88 (95.7)
 Marital status (n = 355)
  Married/domestic partner223 (62.8)51 (56.0)54 (62.8)55 (64.0)63 (68.5)
 Education (n = 355)
  GED/High school or less209 (58.9)58 (63.7)50 (58.1)48 (55.8)53 (57.6)
 U.S. veteran (n = 353)
  Yes38 (10.8)8 (8.8)10 (11.8)9 (10.6)11 (12.0)
Comorbidities
 Screened positive for depression (n = 355)
  Yes84 (23.7)19 (20.9)24 (28.2)18 (20.7)23 (25.0)
 Medical comorbidities (n = 354)
  Cancer12 (3.4)3 (3.3)5 (5.9)2 (2.3)2 (2.2)
  Lung disease18 (5.1)4 (4.4)3 (3.5)5 (5.8)6 (6.5)
  Heart disease18 (5.1)3 (3.3)3 (3.5)6 (7.0)6 (6.5)
  High blood pressureb96 (27.1)33 (36.7)24 (28.2)15 (17.4)24 (25.8)
  Psychiatric problems21 (5.9)9 (10.0)4 (4.7)3 (3.5)5 (5.4)
  Substance abuse17 (4.8)8 (8.9)3 (3.5)1 (1.2)5 (5.4)
  Diabetes22 (6.2)5 (5.6)5 (5.9)6 (7.0)6 (6.5)
  Arthritis14 (4.0)4 (4.4)4 (4.7)1 (1.2)5 (5.4)
Baseline health behavior covariates
 Smokes cigarettes (n = 357)
  Yes88 (24.7)18 (19.8)27 (31.4)24 (27.6)19 (20.4)
 Uses any smokeless tobacco (n = 357)
  Yes57 (16.0)15 (16.5)11 (12.8)14 (16.1)17 (18.3)
 Hazardous drinker (n = 353)
  Yes211 (59.8)61 (67.8)44 (51.2)53 (60.9)53 (58.9)
 Over the past year, how many servings of fruit do you usually eat, not counting juices? (n = 355)
  ≤1 per week94 (26.5)22 (24.2)28 (33.3)26 (29.9)18 (19.4)
  2–4 per week122 (34.4)36 (39.6)22 (26.2)31 (35.6)33 (35.5)
  5–6 per week44 (12.4)10 (11.0)10 (11.9)10 (11.5)14 (15.1)
  ≥1 per day95 (26.8)23 (25.3)24 (28.6)20 (23.0)28 (30.1)
 Over the past year, how many servings of vegetables do you usually eat, not counting salad or potatoes? (n = 357)
  ≤1 per week44 (12.3)12 (13.2)9 (10.5)12 (13.8)11 (11.8)
  2–4 per week121 (33.9)29 (31.9)28 (32.6)30 (34.5)34 (36.6)
  5–6 per week60 (16.8)15 (16.5)16 (18.6)16 (18.4)13 (14.0)
  ≥1 per day132 (37.0)35 (38.5)33 (38.4)29 (33.3)35 (37.6)
 BMI (kg/m2; n = 352)
  Underweight (BMI < 18.5)1 (0.3)1 (1.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
  Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9)49 (13.9)13 (14.3)11 (12.9)15 (18.1)10 (10.8)
  Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9)140 (39.8)30 (33.0)41 (48.2)30 (36.1)39 (41.9)
  Obese (BMI 30–34.9)162 (46.0)47 (51.7)33 (38.8)38 (45.8)44 (47.3)
Baseline sun exposure covariates
 In general, during the summer weekdays, about how many hours a day are you outside between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.? (n = 357)
  Less than 1 hour to 4 hours61 (17.1)11 (12.1)11 (12.8)17 (19.5)22 (23.7)
  4 to 5 hours296 (82.9)80 (87.9)75 (87.2)70 (80.5)71 (76.3)
 In general, during the summer holidays and weekends, about how many hours a day are you outside between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.? (n = 357)
  Less than 1 hour to 4 hours106 (29.7)24 (26.4)25 (29.1)22 (25.3)35 (37.6)
  4 to 5 hours251 (70.3)67 (73.6)61 (70.9)65 (74.7)58 (62.4)
 Which best describes how your skin generally reacts to the sun when you're not using any sun protection? (n = 356)
  Always burn, unable to tan if I work at it/usually burn, then can tan if I work at it67 (18.8)16 (17.6)20 (23.3)14 (16.3)17 (18.3)
  Sometimes mild burn, then easily tan179 (50.3)44 (48.4)38 (44.2)49 (57.0)48 (51.6)
  Rarely burn, tan easily110 (30.9)31 (34.1)28 (32.6)23 (26.7)28 (30.1)
Selected job characteristics
 Hazard to which you are regularly exposed—heat stress (n = 357)
  Yes222 (62.2)58 (63.7)57 (66.3)47 (54.0)60 (64.5)
 What type of cab does the equipment you usually operate in the summer months have? (n = 349)
  Completely enclosed168 (48.1)42 (47.2)37 (44.6)42 (48.8)47 (51.6)
  Partially enclosed135 (38.7)34 (38.2)37 (44.6)32 (37.2)32 (35.2)
  Completely open46 (13.2)13 (14.6)9 (10.8)12 (14.0)12 (13.2)
 How often do you operate heavy equipment during the summer months with the doors and/or windows of the cab open? (n = 350)
  More than 75% of the time171 (48.9)46 (52.9)49 (58.3)39 (44.8)37 (40.2)
  50%–75% of the time73 (20.9)19 (21.8)17 (20.2)17 (19.5)20 (21.7)
  25%–49% of the time34 (9.7)6 (6.9)3 (3.6)13 (14.9)12 (13.0)
  Less than 25% of the time72 (20.6)16 (18.4)15 (17.9)18 (20.7)23 (25.0)
Outcome variables
 Baseline: In the past summer, on the days when you were outside in the sunlight, how often do you use sunscreen? (n = 354)
  Never135 (38.1)40 (44.4)32 (37.2)32 (36.8)31 (34.1)
  Some of the time116 (32.8)24 (26.7)24 (27.9)30 (34.5)38 (41.8)
  About half of the time55 (15.5)14 (15.6)15 (17.4)13 (14.9)13 (14.3)
  Most of the time/always48 (13.6)12 (13.3)15 (17.4)12 (13.8)9 (9.9)
 Follow-up: In the past summer, on the days when you were outside in the sunlight, how often do you use sunscreen? (n = 293)0.001 CS
  Never64 (21.8)29 (36.3)20 (29.0)11 (16.4)4 (5.2)
  Some of the time75 (25.6)22 (27.5)16 (23.2)13 (19.4)24 (31.2)
  About half of the time61 (20.8)12 (15.0)17 (24.6)16 (23.9)16 (20.8)
  Most of the time/always93 (31.7)17 (21.3)16 (23.2)27 (40.3)33 (42.9)
 Baseline: On average, how many times did you get a sunburn this past summer? (n = 355)
  063 (17.8)18 (20.0)16 (18.6)16 (18.4)13 (14.1)
  197 (27.3)17 (18.9)30 (34.9)22 (25.3)28 (30.4)
  291 (25.6)24 (26.7)17 (19.8)27 (31.0)23 (25.0)
  338 (10.7)15 (16.7)7 (8.1)9 (10.3)7 (7.6)
  4 or more times66 (18.6)16 (17.8)16 (18.6)13 (14.9)21 (22.8)
 Follow-up: On average, how many times did you get a sunburn this past summer? (n = 293)
  0104 (35.5)23 (28.8)27 (39.1)27 (40.3)27 (35.1)
  194 (32.1)22 (27.5)21 (30.4)20 (29.9)31 (40.3)
  259 (20.1)20 (25.0)14 (20.3)15 (22.4)10 (13.0)
  319 (6.5)8 (10.0)4 (5.8)2 (3.0)5 (6.5)
  4 or more times17 (5.8)7 (8.8)3 (4.4)3 (4.5)4 (5.2)
  • aTotals vary due to missing data.

  • bThe χ2 test for differences in proportions between conditions significant at P = 0.04.