Table 2.

Coffee consumption and cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2012a

No. ofCoffee consumption
casesNone1–3 cups/month1–6 cups/week1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/dayPtrendPer cup
All cancers34,0311.00 (ref.)1.00 (0.95–1.06)1.00 (0.96–1.05)0.99 (0.95–1.03)0.98 (0.94–1.02)0.96 (0.91–1.01)0.050.99 (0.98–1.00)
Prostate7,5081.00 (ref.)0.94 (0.84–1.05)0.99 (0.91–1.08)0.95 (0.88–1.03)0.98 (0.91–1.07)0.89 (0.79–1.00)0.290.99 (0.97–1.01)
 Aggressiveb3,3781.00 (ref.)0.90 (0.75–1.06)1.02 (0.89–1.17)1.00 (0.89–1.12)1.01 (0.89–1.13)0.92 (0.77–1.08)0.620.99 (0.96–1.02)
Female breast5,2401.00 (ref.)1.04 (0.91–1.18)1.05 (0.94–1.18)1.06 (0.97–1.17)1.07 (0.97–1.18)1.08 (0.93–1.25)0.211.02 (0.99–1.04)
Colorectum4,0961.00 (ref.)1.04 (0.89–1.21)0.99 (0.87–1.13)0.97 (0.87–1.09)1.06 (0.94–1.18)1.11 (0.95–1.30)0.081.02 (0.99–1.05)
Lung3,9541.00 (ref.)0.85 (0.70–1.04)0.91 (0.78–1.06)1.04 (0.91–1.18)1.06 (0.93–1.21)1.08 (0.92–1.26)0.041.03 (1.00–1.06)
NHL2,5801.00 (ref.)1.16 (0.95–1.40)1.07 (0.91–1.26)1.16 (1.01–1.32)1.11 (0.96–1.28)1.19 (0.98–1.45)0.361.02 (0.98–1.05)
Stomach1,1561.00 (ref.)1.08 (0.80–1.46)0.99 (0.77–1.27)0.91 (0.73–1.12)0.99 (0.79–1.23)1.13 (0.83–1.53)0.451.01 (0.96–1.07)
Pancreas1,1361.00 (ref.)1.29 (0.97–1.72)1.20 (0.94–1.52)1.06 (0.86–1.30)1.10 (0.88–1.37)1.10 (0.81–1.50)0.921.01 (0.96–1.06)
Melanoma9211.00 (ref.)0.76 (0.54–1.07)0.85 (0.65–1.12)0.97 (0.79–1.21)0.68 (0.54–0.86)0.72 (0.52–0.99)0.0020.92 (0.87–0.97)
Kidney8381.00 (ref.)0.77 (0.54–1.11)1.20 (0.93–1.56)0.98 (0.78–1.24)0.86 (0.67–1.10)0.89 (0.64–1.23)0.130.95 (0.90–1.01)
Endometriumc8381.00 (ref.)0.79 (0.57–1.11)0.98 (0.75–1.29)0.92 (0.73–1.15)0.90 (0.71–1.15)0.68 (0.45–1.03)0.220.96 (0.90–1.02)
Liver6701.00 (ref.)1.10 (0.76–1.58)0.97 (0.71–1.32)0.88 (0.68–1.15)0.64 (0.48–0.85)0.57 (0.38–0.87)<0.0010.85 (0.79–0.91)
Bladder6511.00 (ref.)0.98 (0.64–1.52)1.09 (0.77–1.53)1.08 (0.81–1.45)1.16 (0.86–1.56)0.88 (0.58–1.32)0.941.01 (0.94–1.07)
Ovaryd4041.00 (ref.)0.89 (0.55–1.44)0.67 (0.44–1.03)0.82 (0.59–1.13)0.72 (0.51–1.03)0.33 (0.17–0.65)0.0070.85 (0.77–0.94)
Thyroid3201.00 (ref.)0.74 (0.43–1.29)1.03 (0.68–1.55)1.01 (0.71–1.44)0.73 (0.50–1.07)0.44 (0.23–0.87)0.0070.87 (0.79–0.97)
Gallbladdere2921.00 (ref.)1.53 (0.85–2.77)1.10 (0.65–1.87)1.33 (0.86–2.07)1.26 (0.79–2.01)1.78 (0.98–3.22)0.221.05 (0.95–1.16)
Esophagus2721.00 (ref.)1.83 (1.00–3.35)1.04 (0.60–1.80)1.20 (0.76–1.89)0.96 (0.60–1.54)1.03 (0.57–1.86)0.340.95 (0.86–1.06)
  • Abbreviation: NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • aHR (95% CI). The following variables were included to rigorously control for the effects of smoking: ethnicity, smoking status, average number of cigarettes, squared average number of cigarettes, number of years smoked (time-dependent), number of years since quitting (time-dependent), and interactions between ethnicity and smoking status, average number of cigarettes, squared average number of cigarettes, and number of years smoked. The models were further adjusted for sex, age at cohort entry, BMI, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, history of diabetes, family history of corresponding cancer, and menopausal status and menopausal hormone therapy for women only.

  • bAdvanced stage or high grade.

  • cExcluding female participants who reported hysterectomy at baseline.

  • dExcluding female participants who reported oophorectomy at baseline.

  • eExcluding participants who reported cholecystectomy at baseline.