Table 4.

Coffee consumption and cancer risk by race/ethnicity in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2012a

African AmericanNative HawaiianJapanese AmericanLatinoWhite
CasesPer cupCasesPer cupCasesPer cupCasesPer cupCasesPer cupPheterogeneity
All cancers6,6480.96 (0.93–0.99)2,5620.95 (0.90–1.00)9,9221.00 (0.98–1.02)6,8731.00 (0.98–1.02)8,0260.98 (0.96–1.00)0.07
Prostate1,6620.94 (0.89–1.00)3841.01 (0.90–1.14)2,1031.00 (0.96–1.04)1,7970.98 (0.95–1.02)1,5620.99 (0.95–1.03)0.91
 Aggressiveb6341.01 (0.92–1.11)2100.93 (0.79–1.09)1,1091.00 (0.95–1.06)7100.96 (0.91–1.02)7150.98 (0.92–1.04)0.35
Female breast1,0091.04 (0.96–1.12)5230.93 (0.84–1.04)1,6271.01 (0.97–1.07)8351.02 (0.96–1.08)1,2461.03 (0.98–1.09)0.60
Colorectum8021.01 (0.93–1.11)2560.92 (0.79–1.07)1,5061.03 (0.97–1.08)7561.04 (0.98–1.10)7761.03 (0.96–1.10)0.74
Lung9640.95 (0.88–1.02)3891.03 (0.91–1.16)1,0231.08 (1.02–1.15)5391.00 (0.93–1.08)1,0391.03 (0.97–1.09)0.11
NHL5001.02 (0.92–1.14)1811.09 (0.93–1.29)6541.02 (0.95–1.10)6010.98 (0.92–1.05)6441.03 (0.96–1.10)0.62
Stomach1471.18 (0.98–1.42)830.62 (0.41–0.94)5220.96 (0.88–1.05)2851.02 (0.93–1.13)1190.97 (0.81–1.15)0.09
Pancreas2341.09 (0.92–1.28)911.01 (0.76–1.33)3940.93 (0.84–1.03)2041.05 (0.94–1.17)2131.03 (0.91–1.17)0.39
Melanoma390.92 (0.64–1.33)381.33 (0.85–2.08)891.02 (0.83–1.25)770.92 (0.76–1.13)6780.89 (0.83–0.96)0.35
Kidney1340.89 (0.72–1.10)760.90 (0.68–1.18)2160.98 (0.86–1.13)2360.97 (0.87–1.08)1760.93 (0.82–1.06)0.77
Endometriumc1790.86 (0.70–1.07)780.67 (0.46–0.97)2100.99 (0.85–1.14)1581.02 (0.89–1.18)2130.94 (0.81–1.08)0.11
Liver930.75 (0.54–1.03)430.45 (0.24–0.82)2130.85 (0.72–0.99)2360.93 (0.83–1.04)850.88 (0.72–1.07)0.15
Bladder1110.96 (0.77–1.20)431.14 (0.73–1.79)1910.97 (0.85–1.12)1111.15 (0.99–1.32)1951.06 (0.94–1.20)0.57
Ovaryd700.72 (0.47–1.10)350.59 (0.26–1.36)1150.85 (0.69–1.06)870.90 (0.72–1.13)970.86 (0.69–1.08)0.79
Thyroid420.85 (0.55–1.30)410.95 (0.69–1.31)890.96 (0.78–1.18)920.85 (0.70–1.04)560.73 (0.57–0.95)0.67
Gallbladdere461.12 (0.79–1.58)181.53 (0.60–3.93)941.05 (0.87–1.27)971.01 (0.86–1.19)371.12 (0.85–1.47)0.87
Esophagus450.81 (0.55–1.19)150.00 (0.00-.)841.05 (0.88–1.26)571.04 (0.85–1.29)711.07 (0.87–1.32)0.47
  • Abbreviation: NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • aHR (95% CI). The following variables were included to rigorously control for the effects of smoking: smoking status, average number of cigarettes, squared average number of cigarettes, number of years smoked (time-dependent), and number of years since quitting (time-dependent). The models were further adjusted for sex, age at cohort entry, BMI, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, history of diabetes, family history of corresponding cancer, and menopausal status and menopausal hormone therapy for women only.

  • bAdvanced stage or high grade.

  • cExcluding female participants who reported hysterectomy at baseline.

  • dExcluding female participants who reported oophorectomy at baseline.

  • eExcluding participants who reported cholecystectomy at baseline.