Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the participants by coffee consumption in the Multiethnic Cohort Studya

Coffee consumption
None1–3 cups/month1–6 cups/week1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/dayTotal
Number of participants26,98512,01122,24451,53643,03311,911167,720
Age at cohort entry (years)58.7 (9.2)59.4 (8.9)59.4 (8.8)61.1 (8.7)58.8 (8.6)57.5 (8.2)59.5 (8.8)
Female15,894 (58.9)7,036 (58.6)11,640 (52.3)28,659 (55.6)22,455 (52.2)5,398 (45.3)91,082 (54.3)
Race/ethnicity
 African American6,919 (25.6)2,826 (23.5)4,622 (20.8)8,240 (16.0)4,421 (10.3)912 (7.7)27,940 (16.7)
 Native Hawaiian2,716 (10.1)1,053 (8.8)1,796 (8.1)3,502 (6.8)2,489 (5.8)727 (6.1)12,283 (7.3)
 Japanese American6,863 (25.4)3,433 (28.6)6,206 (27.9)16,862 (32.7)12,629 (29.3)3,021 (25.4)49,014 (29.2)
 Latino3,965 (14.7)2,312 (19.2)5,516 (24.8)11,620 (22.5)11,172 (26.0)3,214 (27.0)37,799 (22.5)
 White6,522 (24.2)2,387 (19.9)4,104 (18.4)11,312 (21.9)12,322 (28.6)4,037 (33.9)40,684 (24.3)
BMI (kg/m2)26.8 (5.7)26.8 (5.5)27.1 (5.3)26.3 (4.9)26.4 (4.8)26.5 (4.8)26.6 (5.1)
Smoking status
 Never15,814 (58.6)6,566 (54.7)10,919 (49.1)23,123 (44.9)16,481 (38.3)3,086 (25.9)75,989 (45.3)
 Former8,534 (31.6)4,178 (34.8)8,417 (37.8)20,735 (40.2)17,865 (41.5)4,607 (38.7)64,336 (38.4)
 Current2,637 (9.8)1,267 (10.5)2,908 (13.1)7,678 (14.9)8,687 (20.2)4,218 (35.4)27,395 (16.3)
Pack-years among ever smokers15.8 (14.9)15.3 (14.5)15.5 (14.3)17.7 (15.5)19.3 (16.1)24.6 (17.4)18.2 (15.8)
History of diabetes3,141 (11.6)1,480 (12.3)2,881 (13.0)6,080 (11.8)4,412 (10.3)1,220 (10.2)19,214 (11.5)
Alcohol intake (g/day)6.5 (24.6)6.8 (23.4)7.5 (21.5)10.1 (25.7)10.2 (25.4)11.0 (29.7)9.0 (25.1)
Education
 ≤12th grade10,762 (40.1)5,029 (42.1)10,205 (46.1)24,052 (46.9)17,839 (41.6)4,945 (41.7)72,832 (43.6)
 Vocational/some college8,018 (29.9)3,517 (29.4)6,315 (28.5)15,115 (29.4)12,879 (30.0)3,449 (29.1)49,293 (29.5)
 ≥College graduate8,067 (30.0)3,403 (28.5)5,615 (25.4)12,160 (23.7)12,145 (28.3)3,473 (29.3)44,863 (26.9)
Physical activity (hours/day)b0.39 (0.85)0.35 (0.77)0.39 (0.82)0.38 (0.83)0.40 (0.83)0.45 (0.90)0.39 (0.83)
Menopausal status and MHT use among women
 Premenopausal2,759 (19.1)1,067 (16.4)1,778 (16.6)3,294 (12.3)3,511 (16.9)918 (18.5)13,327 (15.7)
 Postmenopausal-never5,428 (37.6)2,373 (36.5)4,161 (38.9)10,487 (39.2)7,556 (36.4)1,899 (38.4)31,767 (37.3)
 Postmenopausal-former2,355 (16.3)1,102 (17.0)1,778 (16.6)4,783 (17.9)3,443 (16.6)837 (16.9)14,349 (16.9)
 Postmenopausal-current3,877 (26.9)1,955 (30.1)2,975 (27.8)8,170 (30.6)6,271 (30.2)1,297 (26.2)25,658 (30.2)
  • Abbreviation: MHT, menopausal hormone therapy.

  • aMean (SD) for continuous variables and n (column %) for categorical variables.

  • bHours spent in vigorous activity per day.