Table 3.

Coffee consumption and cancer risk in men and women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993–2012a

No. ofCoffee consumption
casesNone1–3 cups/month1–6 cups/week1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/dayPtrendPer cup
Men
 All cancers18,3831.00 (ref.)0.98 (0.91–1.06)0.99 (0.93–1.05)0.97 (0.93–1.03)0.98 (0.93–1.03)0.95 (0.89–1.02)0.300.99 (0.98–1.00)
 Colorectum2,1441.00 (ref.)0.92 (0.73–1.15)0.90 (0.75–1.08)0.90 (0.77–1.04)0.98 (0.84–1.14)1.07 (0.88–1.31)0.121.02 (0.99–1.06)
 Lung2,1671.00 (ref.)0.84 (0.64–1.11)0.91 (0.74–1.12)1.05 (0.88–1.24)1.08 (0.91–1.29)1.05 (0.85–1.29)0.151.02 (0.99–1.06)
 NHL1,3571.00 (ref.)0.95 (0.71–1.26)0.98 (0.79–1.23)1.10 (0.91–1.32)1.04 (0.86–1.26)1.24 (0.97–1.59)0.131.04 (1.00–1.09)
 Stomach6761.00 (ref.)1.26 (0.85–1.87)1.10 (0.80–1.53)0.86 (0.65–1.15)1.07 (0.80–1.43)1.12 (0.77–1.65)0.401.02 (0.96–1.09)
 Pancreas5201.00 (ref.)1.20 (0.77–1.88)1.16 (0.81–1.66)1.05 (0.76–1.44)0.97 (0.70–1.34)1.02 (0.67–1.55)0.490.99 (0.92–1.06)
 Melanoma5421.00 (ref.)0.89 (0.59–1.33)0.75 (0.53–1.06)0.93 (0.70–1.22)0.64 (0.48–0.86)0.76 (0.52–1.12)0.010.93 (0.87–1.00)
 Kidney5111.00 (ref.)0.62 (0.38–1.02)1.19 (0.86–1.66)0.90 (0.67–1.21)0.82 (0.60–1.12)0.97 (0.66–1.44)0.550.97 (0.90–1.04)
 Liver4181.00 (ref.)1.32 (0.84–2.09)0.96 (0.65–1.42)0.87 (0.62–1.23)0.63 (0.44–0.91)0.58 (0.35–0.95)<0.0010.85 (0.78–0.93)
 Bladder4771.00 (ref.)1.01 (0.59–1.71)1.15 (0.77–1.73)1.13 (0.80–1.61)1.21 (0.85–1.73)0.89 (0.56–1.43)0.861.00 (0.93–1.08)
 Thyroid841.00 (ref.)0.53 (0.17–1.68)0.87 (0.38–1.96)0.92 (0.45–1.89)0.84 (0.40–1.74)0.58 (0.20–1.69)0.470.94 (0.78–1.13)
 Gallbladderb1361.00 (ref.)1.73 (0.66–4.50)1.31 (0.57–2.97)1.40 (0.68–2.88)1.47 (0.70–3.08)2.11 (0.89–5.05)0.201.08 (0.94–1.23)
 Esophagus2071.00 (ref.)2.41 (1.21–4.82)1.36 (0.72–2.57)1.26 (0.72–2.21)1.23 (0.70–2.17)1.18 (0.59–2.36)0.540.96 (0.86–1.07)
Women
 All cancers15,6481.00 (ref.)1.03 (0.95–1.11)1.03 (0.96–1.11)1.02 (0.97–1.08)0.99 (0.93–1.05)0.97 (0.89–1.06)0.150.99 (0.98–1.00)
 Colorectum1,9521.00 (ref.)1.17 (0.94–1.44)1.10 (0.91–1.33)1.06 (0.91–1.24)1.14 (0.97–1.35)1.10 (0.85–1.43)0.341.02 (0.97–1.06)
 Lung1,7871.00 (ref.)0.87 (0.65–1.16)0.91 (0.72–1.16)1.03 (0.86–1.24)1.03 (0.85–1.25)1.12 (0.88–1.43)0.151.04 (1.00–1.09)
 NHL1,2231.00 (ref.)1.39 (1.07–1.81)1.19 (0.94–1.50)1.23 (1.01–1.49)1.19 (0.97–1.47)1.06 (0.77–1.47)0.800.99 (0.94–1.04)
 Stomach4801.00 (ref.)0.90 (0.57–1.42)0.82 (0.55–1.23)0.98 (0.72–1.35)0.86 (0.61–1.22)1.18 (0.70–1.99)0.881.00 (0.91–1.09)
 Pancreas6161.00 (ref.)1.36 (0.94–1.98)1.20 (0.87–1.67)1.05 (0.80–1.39)1.22 (0.91–1.64)1.20 (0.76–1.88)0.431.04 (0.96–1.12)
 Melanoma3791.00 (ref.)0.54 (0.29–1.01)1.07 (0.69–1.66)1.05 (0.75–1.49)0.74 (0.51–1.06)0.58 (0.31–1.09)0.050.89 (0.80–0.98)
 Kidney3271.00 (ref.)1.04 (0.61–1.79)1.23 (0.79–1.91)1.19 (0.82–1.72)0.94 (0.62–1.41)0.70 (0.37–1.36)0.120.94 (0.85–1.04)
 Liver2521.00 (ref.)0.78 (0.41–1.46)1.03 (0.62–1.71)0.90 (0.59–1.36)0.60 (0.37–0.97)0.57 (0.26–1.25)0.020.83 (0.73–0.95)
 Bladder1741.00 (ref.)0.96 (0.45–2.07)1.04 (0.54–2.01)0.99 (0.58–1.69)1.00 (0.57–1.75)0.84 (0.34–2.08)0.761.00 (0.86–1.15)
 Thyroid2361.00 (ref.)0.80 (0.42–1.51)1.04 (0.64–1.71)1.01 (0.67–1.52)0.68 (0.43–1.08)0.37 (0.15–0.91)0.0090.85 (0.75–0.97)
 Gallbladderb1561.00 (ref.)1.38 (0.65–2.96)0.97 (0.47–1.98)1.30 (0.73–2.32)1.11 (0.59–2.08)1.34 (0.55–3.22)0.761.01 (0.88–1.17)
 Esophagus651.00 (ref.)0.57 (0.09–3.70)0.21 (0.04–0.99)1.15 (0.47–2.81)0.44 (0.15–1.30)1.20 (0.30–4.89)0.701.02 (0.77–1.33)
  • Abbreviation: NHL, non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  • aHR (95% CI). The following variables were included to rigorously control for the effects of smoking: ethnicity, smoking status, average number of cigarettes, squared average number of cigarettes, number of years smoked (time-dependent), number of years since quitting (time-dependent), and interactions between ethnicity and smoking status, average number of cigarettes, squared average number of cigarettes, and number of years smoked. The models were further adjusted for age at cohort entry, body mass index, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, history of diabetes, family history of corresponding cancer, and menopausal status and menopausal hormone therapy for women only.

  • bExcluding participants who reported cholecystectomy at baseline.