Table 1.

Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma cases in the United States diagnosed from 2000 to 2014

CharacteristicCases (N = 56,347)
Individual level
 Mean (SD)
  Age at diagnosis62.4 (11.6)
N (%)
  Sex
   Male43,435 (77.1)
   Female12,912 (22.9)
  Race/ethnicity
   Non-Hispanic white27,808 (49.4)
   Non-Hispanic black7,623 (13.5)
   Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander9,217 (16.4)
   Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaskan Native595 (1.1)
   Hispanic11,104 (19.7)
  Time zone
   Eastern16,870 (29.9)
   Central4,850 (8.6)
   Mountain2,300 (4.1)
   Pacific32,327 (57.4)
  Year of diagnosis
   2000–200723,613 (41.9)
   2008–201432,734 (58.1)
County levela
 Mean (SD)
  Distance from time zone meridian (degrees)b1.5 (3.9)
  Percent shift work occupationc27.8 (6.0)
  Percent alcohol consumption8.3 (2.2)
  Percent smoking status23.9 (4.8)
  Percent any physical activityd76.9 (5.8)
  Percent obesity (≥30 kg/m2)d25.7 (4.1)
  Percent diabetes11.4 (1.7)
  Median household income (per $10,000)47.1 (11.1)
  Percent bachelor's degree or higher26.1 (9.2)
  Percent unemployed6.5 (2.3)
  Percent poverty13.1 (5.3)
  PM2.5 (μg/m3)14.6 (3.1)
  UV (mW/m2)215.0 (39.1)
  Percent foreign born17.9 (12.1)
N (%)
  Urbanicity
   Rural460 (0.8)
   Urban55,887 (99.2)
  • Abbreviations: kg/m2, kilogram per square meter; mW/m2, milliwatt per square meter; PM2.5, particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter; SD, standard deviation; μg/m3, microgram per cubic meter; UV, ultraviolet radiation.

  • aWe used the county at diagnosis for cases from SEER to determine characteristics regarding the counties in which each case resided. We used GIS to estimate distance from time zone meridian, PM2.5 air pollution, and UV. We used county-level measures provided by SEER, U.S. Census Bureau, and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation to estimate values for the variables listed under “County level” (e.g., occupation, lifestyle, health conditions, socioeconomic status, demographics). Please refer to the Methods section for a detailed description of each of these variables.

  • bPositive distance values indicate the SEER county Center of Population is located west of the time zone meridian. Negative values indicate the Center of Population is located east of the meridian.

  • cOccupations where ≥10% of the U.S. workforce regularly works night shifts, rotating shifts, or between midnight and 6 a.m.

  • dSex-specific any physical activity and obesity prevalence rates were averaged to estimate a total prevalence.