Table 3.

Association of β-diversity with coffee and tea intake as categorical or continuous variables

CategoricalContinuous
PaPa
None<1 c/day[1–3) c/day≥3 c/dayP-trenda,bPer cup per day
CoffeeRef.0.680.690.490.430.90
TeaRef.0.750.120.020.0030.002
  • aP values from PERMANOVA of weighted UniFrac distance, adjusting for age, sex, study (CPS-IIa, CPS-IIb, PLCOa, PLCOb), current smoking, BMI (kg/m2), energy intake (kcal/day), ethanol intake (grams/day), and coffee or tea intake (cups/day; in tea and coffee models, respectively).

  • bTrend tests across groups were done by entering the categorical variables into the models as continuous terms.