Table 3.

Multivariable associations of migration and linguistic acculturation with dense area (cm2)

Model 1aModel 2b
Nβ(95% CI)β(95% CI)
Linguistic Acculturationc
 Monolingual English117RefRef
 Bilingual181−5.78(−12.71, 1.15)−5.42(−16.13, 5.28)
 Monolingual Spanish179−7.49(−14.45, −0.52)−7.08(−18.36, 4.21)
Nativityc
 U.S.-born165RefRef
 Foreign-born312−6.58(−12.21, −0.95)−4.45(−12.82, 3.92)
Race/ethnicity and Nativity
 U.S-born white49−2.31(−13.88, 9.27)−1.01(−12.92, 10.90)
 U.S-born African American622.04(−8.91, 12.98)4.98(−5.96, 15.93)
 U.S-born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic312−6.52(−15.22, 2.18)−5.35(−14.15, 3.45)
Race/ethnicity and % Life Spent in the U.S.
 U.S.-born white49−2.26(−13.83, 9.31)−1.15(−13.06, 10.75)
 U.S.-born African American622.10(−8.84, 13.04)5.10(−5.84, 16.04)
 U.S.-born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic, 50%–99%178−5.43(−14.63, 3.77)−4.13(−13.45, 5.18)
 Foreign-born Hispanic, <50%133−7.85(−17.28, 1.59)−6.74(−16.21, 2.73)
Race/ethnicity and Age at Migration to the United States
 U.S.- born white49−2.33(−13.91, 9.24)−1.16(−13.08, 10.75)
 U.S.- born African American622.02(−8.92, 12.96)5.0(−5.94, 15.94)
 U.S.- born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated < 20 years93−5.95(−16.0, 4.09)−4.09(−14.16, 5.97)
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated 20–29 years128−6.20(−15.71, 3.31)−5.54(−15.15, 4.06)
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated 30+ years90−7.65(−17.83, 2.52)−6.45(−16.64, 3.74)
  • aModel 1 is adjusted for age and BMI (kg/m2) at the time of mammogram.

  • bModel 2 is adjusted by age, BMI (kg/m2) at the time of mammogram, parity, age at first birth, and childhood body size.

  • cModel 2 is also adjusted for race/ethnicity.