Table 4.

Multivariable associations of migration and linguistic acculturation with non-dense area (cm2)

Model 1aModel 2b
Nβ(95% CI)β(95% CI)
Linguistic Acculturationc
 Monolingual English117RefRef
 Bilingual181−14.27(−28.21, −0.33)−0.39(−22.13, 21.36)
 Monolingual Spanish179−6.62(−20.62, 7.39)10.14(−12.78, 33.06)
Nativityc
 U.S.-born165RefRef
 Foreign-born312−3.84(−15.21, 7.53)15.26(−1.72, 32.24)
Race/ethnicity and Nativity
 U.S.-born white49−5.72(−28.88, 17.43)−2.53(−26.64, 21.57)
 U.S.-born African American6227.73(5.84, 49.62)31.24(9.09, 53.40)
 U.S.-born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic3124.83(−12.57, 22.23)10.57(−7.24, 28.39)
Race/Ethnicity and % Life Spent in the United States
 U.S.-born white49−5.71(−28.86, 17.44)−2.50(−26.62, 21.62)
 U.S.-born African American6227.75(5.86, 49.64)31.22(9.06, 53.38)
 U.S.-born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic, 50%–99%1785.13(−13.29, 23.55)10.31(−8.56, 29.18)
Foreign-born Hispanic, <50%1334.46(−14.42, 23.34)10.88(−8.30, 30.06)
Race/ethnicity and Age at Migration to the U.S.
 U.S.-born white49−5.66(−28.75, 17.44)−2.75(−26.85, 21.35)
 U.S.-born African American6227.81(5.98, 49.65)31.38(9.26, 53.50)
 U.S.-born Hispanic54RefRef
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated < 20 years9311.60(−8.44, 31.64)14.90(−5.45, 35.25)
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated 20–29 years128−0.72(−19.70, 18.26)6.24(−13.19, 25.66)
 Foreign-born Hispanic, migrated 30+ years905.98(−14.32, 26.28)12.17(−8.44, 32.77)
  • aModel 1 is adjusted for age and BMI (kg/m2) at the time of mammogram.

  • bModel 2 is adjusted by age, BMI (kg/m2) at the time of mammogram, parity, age at first birth, and childhood body size.

  • cModel 2 is also adjusted for race/ethnicity.