Table 1.

Demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of 2,150 postmenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the WHI-DM and WHI-OS by quartile of E-DII

Most anti-inflammatory dietMost proinflammatory diet
E-DII quartile 1 (−6.81, −4.49)E-DII quartile 2 (−4.48, −3.46)E-DII quartile 3 (−3.45, −2.01)E-DII quartile 4 (−2.00, 3.79)Pa
Number of subjects538537538537
Mean (SE)Mean (SE)Mean (SE)Mean (SE)
Age at breast cancer diagnosis (years)65.6 (0.3)66.4 (0.3)66.6 (0.3)66.3 (0.3)0.08
Years from breast cancer diagnosis to FFQ1.5 (0.05)1.5 (0.05)1.6 (0.05)1.5 (0.05)0.57
Years from breast cancer diagnosis to death from any cause8.4 (0.3)8.1 (0.3)7.5 (0.3)7.3 (0.3)0.03
Total energy intake after cancer diagnosis (kcal/day)1,366.7 (18.5)1,506.2 (20.5)1,631.1 (25.7)1,665.4 (28.4)<0.0001
BMI at enrollment (kg/m2)27.0 (0.3)27.7 (0.3)28.5 (0.2)29.6 (0.3)<0.0001
Physical activity at enrollment in MET- hours/week15.5 (0.7)13.2 (0.6)10.4 (0.5)8.7 (0.5)<0.0001
n (%)bn (%)bn (%)bn (%)b
WHI components<0.0001
 WHI OS285 (53.0)258 (48.0)220 (40.9)205 (38.2)
 WHI-DM intervention134 (24.9)122 (22.8)116 (21.6)76 (14.1)
 WHI-DM control119 (22.1)157 (29.2)202 (37.5)256 (47.7)
Race/ethnicity<0.0001
 White non-Hispanic482 (89.6)498 (92.7)475 (88.3)448 (83.4)
 Hispanic/Latino11 (2.0)11 (2.1)15 (2.8)16 (3.0)
 Black/African American19 (3.5)17 (3.2)26 (4.8)56 (10.4)
 Other26 (4.8)11 (2.0)22 (4.1)17 (3.2)
Income level<0.0001
 <20,00045 (8.4)45 (8.4)76 (14.1)89 (16.6)
 20,000–49,999209 (38.8)252 (46.9)215 (40.0)241 (44.9)
 ≥50,000257 (47.8)216 (40.2)218 (40.5)170 (31.7)
 Missing27 (5.0)24 (4.5)29 (5.4)37 (6.9)
Education level<0.0001
 High school or below105 (19.5)120 (22.3)140 (26.0)178 (33.0)
 Some college144 (26.8)149 (27.8)159 (29.5)167 (31.0)
 College72 (13.4)77 (14.3)74 (13.7)51 (9.5)
 Post graduate213 (39.6)187 (34.8)163 (30.2)137 (25.4)
 Missing4 (0.7)4 (0.7)3 (0.6)6 (1.1)
Cancer stage0.36
 Localized416 (77.3)403 (75.0)394 (73.2)393 (73.2)
 Regional114 (21.2)127 (23.7)130 (24.2)137 (25.5)
 Distant4 (0.7)4 (0.7)4 (0.7)4 (0.7)
 Unknown4 (0.7)3 (0.6)10 (1.9)3 (0.6)
Smoking status at enrollment0.02
 Never smoked228 (42.4)281 (52.3)266 (49.4)261 (48.6)
 Past smoker269 (50.0)230 (42.8)239 (44.4)229 (42.6)
 Current smoker28 (5.2)20 (3.7)25 (4.7)39 (7.3)
 Missing13 (2.4)6 (1.1)8 (1.5)8 (1.5)
ER status0.12
 Positive429 (79.7)400 (74.5)411 (76.4)391 (72.8)
 Negative63 (11.7)74 (13.8)71 (13.2)91 (17.0)
 Othersc46 (8.6)63 (11.7)56 (10.4)55 (10.2)
PR status0.21
 Positive351 (65.2)321 (59.8)350 (65.1)317 (59.0)
 Negative125 (23.2)143 (26.6)125 (23.2)153 (28.5)
 Othersc62 (11.5)73 (13.6)63 (11.7)67 (12.5)
  • aP value was calculated from ANOVA test for continuous variables and from χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • bThe sum of percentages in certain E-DII quartile for some categorical variables may not add up to 100% because of rounding.

  • cThis category included data from borderline status or missing.