Table 2.

Age- and sex-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs (and 95% CIs) for total pancreatic cancer according to nut consumption; NLCS, 1986–2006

Median intakeaMenWomenTotal population
Food itemMenWomenPerson-yearsCasesAge-adjusted HR (95% CI)Multivariable-adjusted HRb (95% CI)Person-yearsCasesAge-adjusted HR (95% CI)Multivariable-adjusted HRb (95% CI)Age- and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI)Multivariable-adjusted HRc (95% CI)
Total nuts (g/d)
 00.00.08,8881081.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)13,5271151.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 0.1-<52.52.19,675940.80 (0.59–1.09)0.85 (0.62–1.17)12,3891081.10 (0.83–1.45)1.11 (0.83–1.49)0.94 (0.77–1.16)0.98 (0.79–1.22)
 5–<108.57.83,951370.78 (0.52–1.17)0.78 (0.50–1.19)3,883260.91 (0.57–1.44)0.89 (0.54–1.44)0.84 (0.62–1.15)0.85 (0.62–1.16)
 10+21.415.77,124590.71 (0.50–1.00)0.71 (0.50–1.03)4,280361.09 (0.72–1.63)0.98 (0.63–1.50)0.85 (0.65–1.11)0.84 (0.63–1.11)
Ptrend0.0970.0970.9120.6790.2230.165
 Continuous, per 5 g/d increment0.96 (0.91–1.01)0.95 (0.90–1.01)1.00 (0.93–1.07)0.97 (0.90–1.06)0.97 (0.93–1.01)0.96 (0.92–1.01)
Tree nuts (g/d)
 00.00.021,3932391.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)23,8472041.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 0.1–<51.61.66,704480.64 (0.46–0.89)0.68 (0.48–0.95)8,365711.03 (0.77–1.38)1.02 (0.74–1.39)0.83 (0.66–1.03)0.86 (0.69–1.08)
 5+8.68.91,541110.64 (0.34–1.21)0.66 (0.34–1.26)1,866100.67 (0.34–1.29)0.63 (0.32–1.24)0.65 (0.41–1.03)0.65 (0.41–1.04)
Ptrend0.0770.1060.2620.2060.0380.051
 Continuous, per 5 g/dincrement0.85 (0.62–1.17)0.86 (0.63–1.18)0.98 (0.77–1.24)0.96 (0.75–1.24)0.92 (0.75–1.13)0.93 (0.75–1.14)
Peanuts (g/d)
 00.00.09,9951141.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)15,9361361.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 0.1–<52.52.110,5421040.88 (0.66–1.18)0.92 (0.68–1.24)12,6351021.03 (0.78–1.35)1.05 (0.79–1.40)0.96 (0.78–1.17)0.99 (0.80–1.22)
 5–<108.58.53,285290.81 (0.52–1.25)0.77 (0.49–1.21)2,556241.26 (0.78–2.04)1.11 (0.67–1.84)0.99 (0.71–1.37)0.94 (0.67–1.31)
 10+21.417.15,816510.81 (0.56–1.16)0.82 (0.56–1.19)2,951231.01 (0.62–1.63)0.94 (0.57–1.55)0.89 (0.67–1.19)0.88 (0.65–1.19)
Ptrend0.3030.2930.7420.8850.4910.372
 Continuous, per 5 g/dincrement0.96 (0.91–1.02)0.96 (0.91–1.02)1.00 (0.92–1.08)0.97 (0.88–1.06)0.97 (0.93–1.02)0.96 (0.92–1.01)
Peanut butter (g/d)
 00.00.021,2022161.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)24,8792091.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 0.1–<51.21.25,164611.21 (0.89–1.66)1.24 (0.89–1.72)5,967541.13 (0.82–1.56)1.11 (0.79–1.55)1.17 (0.94–1.47)1.19 (0.95–1.51)
 5+9.66.93,272210.66 (0.41–1.06)0.66 (0.41–1.08)3,232220.85 (0.53–1.37)0.86 (0.53–1.39)0.74 (0.53–1.04)0.75 (0.53–1.05)
Ptrend0.0790.0950.5530.5660.0830.095
 Continuous, per 5 g/dincrement0.93 (0.77–1.11)0.93 (0.77–1.13)0.91 (0.74–1.12)0.90 (0.73–1.11)0.92 (0.80–1.06)0.92 (0.80–1.06)
  • aMedian intake in the subcohort.

  • bAdjusted for age (years; continuous); cigarette smoking [status (never/former/current), frequency (n/d; continuous, centered) and duration (years; continuous, centered)]; BMI (kg/m2; continuous); family history of pancreatic cancer (no/yes); history of diabetes (no/yes); educational level (low/medium/high); total energy intake (kcal/d; continuous) and alcohol consumption (g/d; continuous).

  • cAdjusted for b and sex (male/female).