Table 1.

Comparison of NNAL and cotinine exposure rates (urine NNAL > 0.25 pg/mL; urine cotinine > 0.05 ng/mL) by gender, ethnicity, and age

NNALCotinine
nFrequency (%)PFrequency (%)P
All469441 (94)407 (87)
Gender
 Male184173 (94)159 (86)
 Female285268 (94)1248 (87)1
Ethnicity
 Asian5147 (92)42 (82)
 Latino246226 (92)201 (82)
 Black102101 (99)97 (95)
 White1513 (84)15 (100)
 Mixed/other5554 (98)0.0552 (95)<0.01
Age
 13–1410293 (91)80 (78)
 15–16203192 (95)180 (89)
 17–19164156 (95)0.4147 (90)0.02