Table 4.

HRs (95% CIs) for microscopically confirmed pancreatic cancer according to total nut intake in men and women combined in subgroups, in multivariable-adjusted analysesa, the Netherlands Cohort Study, 1986–2006

Total nut consumption (g/d; medianb)
0 g/day (0.0)0.1–<5 g/d (2.5)5+ g/d (11.5)PtrendPinteraction
Overall
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)128/22,417129/22,06892/19,238
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.03 (0.79–1.35)0.78 (0.58–1.05)0.060
Sex
 Males
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)68/8,88862/9,67558/11,075
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.86 (0.59–1.24)0.66 (0.45–0.98)0.0430.377
 Females
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)60/13,52967/12,39334/8,163
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.23 (0.84–1.79)0.90 (0.56–1.45)0.451
Total population
BMI
 18.5–<25 kg/m2
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)64/11,28856/12,03639/11,210
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.85 (0.57–1.26)0.60 (0.39–0.94)0.0260.082
 ≥25 kg/m2
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)63/10,83773/9,90453/7,924
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.24 (0.86–1.78)0.97 (0.64–1.47)0.597
Cigarette smoking
 Never
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)37/9,91940/9,20823/5,778
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.12 (0.70–1.79)0.92 (0.51–1.64)0.6620.260
 Former
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)50/6,46146/7,95435/8,511
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.82 (0.52–1.27)0.54 (0.34–0.87)0.012
 Current
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)41/6,03743/4,90734/4,948
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.19 (0.73–1.92)1.04 (0.62–1.76)0.957
Alcohol consumption
 0 g/day
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)34/7,91625/4,6918/2,259
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.26 (0.72–2.22)0.69 (0.29–1.61)0.3570.757
 0.1–<15 g/d
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)63/10,02869/12,73144/10,348
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.92 (0.64–1.33)0.74 (0.48–1.13)0.156
 ≥15 g/day
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)31/4,47335/4,64740/6,631
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.12 (0.64–1.94)0.83 (0.48–1.45)0.335
Educational level
 Low
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)71/12,89455/10,78838/7,450
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.00 (0.68–1.46)0.87 (0.56–1.35)0.5000.716
 Medium
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)40/7,21352/8,01838/7,866
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)1.16 (0.74–1.82)0.83 (0.51–1.34)0.246
 High
 Cases/person-time at risk (years)17/2,31022/3,26316/3,921
 HR (95% CI)1.00 (reference)0.87 (0.43–1.78)0.55 (0.25–1.21)0.123
  • aAdjusted for age (years; continuous); sex (male/female); cigarette smoking [status (never/former/current), frequency (n/day; continuous, centered) and duration (years; continuous, centered)]; BMI (kg/m2; continuous); family history of pancreatic cancer (no/yes); history of diabetes (no/yes); educational level (low/medium/high); total energy intake (kcal/day; continuous) and alcohol consumption (g/d; continuous).

  • bMedian intake in the subcohort.