Table 2.

Multivariablea ORs and 95% CIs for invasive ovarian cancer by p53 expression and MAPK expression

All (n = 274)p53 wild-type (n = 88)p53 mutantb (n = 186)P-hetMAPK (n = 142)MAPK+b (n = 132)P-het
Family history of breast or ovarian cancer
 No1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Yes1.36 (0.98–1.88)1.23 (0.70–2.17)1.41 (0.97–2.07)0.682.06 (1.39–3.06)0.74 (0.43–1.27)<0.01
Parity
 Nulliparous1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Parous0.60 (0.40–0.90)0.31 (0.18–0.55)0.92 (0.54–1.59)<0.010.51 (0.30–0.86)0.73 (0.41–1.30)0.35
 Nulliparous1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 1–2 children0.71 (0.46–1.08)0.40 (0.22–0.73)1.05 (0.60–1.85)0.020.66 (0.38–1.12)0.78 (0.42–1.43)0.67
 3–4 children0.45 (0.29–0.71)0.20 (0.10–0.39)0.74 (0.41–1.33)<0.010.33 (0.18–0.60)0.63 (0.33–1.19)0.13
 5+ children0.69 (0.40–1.18)0.37 (0.16–0.87)1.03 (0.52–2.05)0.050.54 (0.26–1.10)0.90 (0.42–1.93)0.31
Oral contraceptive use
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever0.80 (0.60–1.07)0.93 (0.57–1.51)0.75 (0.54–1.06)0.470.84 (0.57–1.23)0.77 (0.52–1.14)0.74
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 1–11 months0.97 (0.64–1.47)0.96 (0.47–1.97)0.97 (0.59–1.59)0.980.86 (0.48–1.54)1.08 (0.62–1.88)0.56
 1–4 years1.04 (0.73–1.47)1.30 (0.73–2.32)0.94 (0.62–1.42)0.351.26 (0.80–1.97)0.81 (0.48–1.34)0.18
 5–9 years0.68 (0.43–1.08)0.87 (0.41–1.86)0.61 (0.35–1.07)0.430.56 (0.28–1.10)0.81 (0.44–1.47)0.41
 10+ years0.29 (0.14–0.58)0.30 (0.09–1.02)0.28 (0.12–0.66)0.920.36 (0.15–0.86)0.21 (0.06–0.68)0.46
Tubal ligation
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever0.49 (0.32–0.74)0.55 (0.28–1.09)0.47 (0.28–0.77)0.690.69 (0.41–1.15)0.31 (0.16–0.60)0.06
Age at menarche
 <13 years1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 13+ years1.15 (0.89–1.50)1.32 (0.85–2.06)1.08 (0.80–1.48)0.451.08 (0.77–1.54)1.25 (0.87–1.79)0.57
Menopausal status
 Premenopausal/unknown1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Postmenopausal1.05 (0.67–1.64)1.26 (0.60–2.63)0.96 (0.56–1.67)0.560.78 (0.43–1.41)1.51 (0.78–2.92)0.13
Age at menopause
 <50 years1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 50+ years1.00 (0.70–1.42)0.77 (0.43–1.37)1.15 (0.75–1.75)0.260.92 (0.57–1.51)1.08 (0.67–1.72)0.65
Hormone therapy (HT) use
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever1.50 (1.08–2.08)1.44 (0.83–2.50)1.52 (1.03–2.24)0.871.22 (0.78–1.92)1.82 (1.16–2.84)0.20
Estrogen-only HT use
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever2.03 (1.42–2.90)1.82 (1.01–3.28)2.15 (1.42–3.26)0.631.91 (1.18–3.11)2.17 (1.35–3.49)0.71
Estrogen + progesterone HT use
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever1.08 (0.76–1.53)1.15 (0.65–2.04)1.04 (0.69–1.59)0.790.72 (0.43–1.22)1.52 (0.96–2.38)0.03
Other HT use
 Never1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
 Ever0.74 (0.43–1.27)0.85 (0.37–1.99)0.68 (0.35–1.34)0.670.95 (0.47–1.89)0.54 (0.24–1.23)0.29
  • aAdjusted for age (continuous), study (NHS, NHS II, NECC), family history of breast or ovarian cancer (no, yes), oral contraceptive use (months), parity (nulliparous, parous, unknown), parity (continuous), menopausal status and HT use (premenopausal/unknown, postmenopausal no HT use, postmenopausal HT use, postmenopausal HT use unknown).

  • bMutant p53 defined as 0% of cells stained positive or >50% stained positive. MAPK was considered positive if >10% of cells stained positive.