Table 1.

Baseline covariates by the study group

No diet (Control and Exercise), N = 69Diet (Diet, and Diet + Exercise), N = 87Study participants, N = 156Study nonparticipants, N = 282
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Pa
Age58.54 (5.22)58.10 (5.75)58.3 (5.5)57.74 (4.74)0.48
BMI kg/m229.63 (3.64)30.39 (3.85)30.06 (3.77)31.31 (4.0)0.007
Waist circumference (cm)91.47 (8.51)92.29 (8.82)91.93 (8.66)95.97 (10.53)<0.001
Physical activity38.32 (46.90)35.99 (48.46)37.02 (47.64)29.90 (41.12)0.16
% calories intake from fat33.45 (6.66)33.97 (6.22) N=8533.74 (6.41) N=15434.63 (7.19)N=2720.57
VO2max22.78 (4.11)22.70 (4.38)22.74 (4.25)23.05 (3.90)0.92
Total calories intake2,108 (668.6)1,886 (563.2)N=851,985 (620.5)N=1541,907 (647)N=2720.32
Weight loss at 12 months (%)−0.92 (4.21)−12.60 (6.33)−7.43 (7.99)−6.02 (7.34)0.19
VEGF347.6 (220.6)383.2 (228.9)367.4 (225.2)390.8 (262.3)0.74
PEDF10.62 (2.03)10.81 (2.16)10.73 (2.10)10.80 (2.07)0.73
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)Pb
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white61 (88.4)76 (87.4)137 (87.8)235 (83.3)0.09
 African American4 (5.8)2 (2.3)6 (3.8)29 (10.3)
 Hispanic/Latino2 (2.9)4 (4.6)6 (3.8)6 (2.1)
Other2 (2.9)5 (5.7)7 (4.6)12 (4.3)
Education46 (66.67)60 (68.97)106 (67.95)180 (63.83)0.39
  • aA P value from a nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test for difference between study participants versus nonparticipants.

  • bA P value from a χ2 test for a difference in proportions between study participants versus nonparticipants.