Table 3.

Metabolic obesity phenotypes defined by presence of the MetS and BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer, in the Women's Health Initiative CVD Biomarkers Sub-Cohort

Metabolic phenotypesCases, NNoncases, NHRa (95% CI)
Total population (n cases 1,176; n noncases 19,819)
 MHNW2194,3661.00 (Ref.)
 MUNW286470.86 (0.51–1.38)
 MHOW2614,9041.08 (0.90–1.31)
 MUOW1282,3071.17 (0.93–1.47)
 MHO2023,1451.31 (1.07–1.61)
 MUO34545571.61 (1.34–1.94)
Never used hormone therapy (n cases 714; n noncases 11,855)
 MHNW1212,4861.00 (Ref.)
 MUNW123370.76 (0.40–1.45)
 MHOW1482,8001.14 (0.88–1.46)
 MUOW751,4111.18 (0.87–1.60)
 MHO1251,8551.45 (1.11–1.90)
 MUO2332,9661.81 (1.42–2.29)
Never used hormone therapy and not in treatment arms of the HT clinical trials (n cases 458; n noncases 7,827)
 MHNW701,5841.00 (Ref.)
 MUNW91961.15 (0.55–2.40)
 MHOW951,9021.18 (0.85–1.63)
 MUOW488911.27 (0.86–1.88)
 MHO831,3191.45 (1.03–2.04)
 MUO1531,9352.01 (1.48–2.73)
First 3 years of follow-up excluded (n cases 983; n noncases 19,410)
 MHNW1764,2811.00 (Ref.)
 MUNW175170.90 (0.54–1.51)
 MHOW2144,8301.11 (0.90–1.37)
 MUOW1112,2441.23 (0.96–1.58)
 MHO1743,0871.38 (1.10–1.73)
 MUO2914,4511.65 (1.35–2.02)
  • Abbreviations: MHNW, metabolically healthy normal weight; MUNW, metabolically unhealthy normal weight; MHOW, metabolically healthy overweight; MUOW, metabolically unhealthy overweight; MHO, metabolically healthy obese; MUO, metabolically unhealthy obese.

  • aAdjusted for age (continuous), smoking status (never, former, current), pack-years of smoking (continuous), alcohol intake (drinks/week – continuous), physical activity (MET-h/wk), age at first birth (<20, 20–29, ≥30, missing), age at menarche (<12, 12, 13, ≥14), age at menopause (<45, 45–54, ≥55, missing), oral contraceptives (never, ever), hormone therapy (never, ever), parous/nulliparous, family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative (no, yes), history of breast biopsy (no, yes), breastfed for more than 6 months (no, yes), education (less than high school grad, high school grad/some college, college grad, post-college), ethnicity (white, black, other), allocation to the OS or specific arm of clinical trials.