Table 1.

List of studies of cfDI as a biomarker of cancer diagnosis

StudyCaseControlGeneCancer typesSamplesCase valueControl valueP
Wang et al. 20036165aACTB 400/100 bpMixedPlasma0.66 (0.42–0.90)0.14 (0.06–0.28)<0.0001
Umetani et al. 20063251ALU 247/115 bpCRCSerum0.22 ± 0.020.13 ± 0.01<0.05
19ALU 247/115 bpPACSerum0.25 ± 0.030.13 ± 0.01<0.05
Umetani et al. 2006 (1)5151ALU 247/115 bpBreast cancerSerum0.25 ± 0.030.13 ± 0.01<0.05
Jiang et al. 20065847ACTB 400/100 bpHNCPlasma0.24 (0.11–0.38)−2.24 (−2.92−1.56)<0.0001
Holdenriede et al. 20084017aGene 347/137 bpMixedPlasma0.46 (0.15–1.44)0.56 (0.15–2.07)0.527
4015aGene 347/137 bpMixedSerum0.43 (0.06–1.28)0.33 (0.10–0.75)0.1
Ellinger et al. 20097435ACTB 384/106 bpTGCCSerum0.41 (0.43–0.48)0.98 (0.57–1.40)<0.001
El-Shazly et al. 20102525aALU 247/115 bpHCCSerum0.34 ± 0.070.20 ± 0.020.001
Gao et al. 20106030ACTB 384/106 bpAcute leukemiaPlasma0.51 (0.11–0.92)0.18 (0.07–0.37)<0.001
Hauser et al. 20103554ACTB 384/106 bpRenal cell cancerSerum1.0740.7160.0396
Pinzani et al. 20115734APP 180/67 bpMelanomaPlasma0.8 ± 0.050.5 ± 0.04<0.001
APP 306/67 bp0.3 ± 0.030.2 ± 0.020.008
APP 476/67 bp0.2 ± 0.030.1 ± 0.010.002
Mead et al. 20112435ALU 115/247 bpCRCPlasma14.0210.01<0.001
2426aALU 115/247 bp11.8910.010.043
2435LINE1 79/300 bp9.116.670.001
2426aLINE1 79/300 bp7.766.670.033
Chen et al. 20128050ACTB 400/100 bpHCCSerum0.41 ± 0.180.15 ± 0.12<0.001
8080aACTB 400/100 bp0.41 ± 0.180.23 ± 0.12<0.001
Hauser et al. 201214384ACTB 384/106 bpBladder cancerSerum0.690.36<0.001
Salvianti et al. 20127663APP 180/67 bpMelanomaPlasma0.75 (0.07–2.57)0.46 (0.09–1.81)<0.0001
Wei et al. 20127022ALU 247/115 bpGliomaSerum0.64 ± 0.140.59 ± 0.210.067
Feng et al. 20137133aALU 247/115 bpProstate cancerPlasma0.34 ± 0.120.23 ± 0.09<0.001
Hao et al. 2014104110ALU 247/115 bpCRCSerum0.62 (0.51–0.65)0.38 (0.29–0.49)<0.0001
Madhavan et al. 201482100ALU260/111 bpBreast cancerPlasma0.620.650.046
Leszinski et al. 20142424ALU 247/115 bpCRCSerum1.311.070.005
Stötzer et al. 20146540 (12a)ALU 247/115 bpBreast cancerPlasma1.1 (0.6–1.7)1.2 (0.5–9.3)<0.05
Kamel et al. 20169570ACTB 400/100 bpBreast cancerPlasma0.72 ± 0.230.15 ± 0.11<0.001
95aACTB 400/100 bp0.72 ± 0.230.28 ± 0.18
El-Gayar et al. 20165020ALU 247/115 bpCRCSerum1.54 (0.7–3.1)0.3 (0.2–1.9)<0.001
10aALU 247/115 bp1.54 (0.7–3.1)0.17 (0.1–1.35)
Fawzy et al. 20165025aALU 247/115 bpProstate cancerPlasma0.29 (0.16–0.43)0.10 (0.06–0.15)<0.001
30ALU 247/115 bp0.29 (0.16–0.43)0.03 (0.01–0.05)<0.001
Huang et al. 20165322ALU 247/115 bpHCCPlasma0.55 (0.20–1.20)0.69 (0.49–0.99)0.0025
15aALU 247/115 bp0.55 (0.20–1.20)0.68 (0.41–1.03)0.0167
Maltoni et al. 20177910HER2 long/shortBreast cancerSerum0.230.350.329
BCAS long/short0.290.520.002
MYC long/short0.410.660.03
PI3KCA long/short0.0920.360.004
  • Abbreviations: CRC, colorectal cancer; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.

  • aIndicates controls have benign disease. Data in bold indicate lower cfDI in cancer patients in these studies.