Table 2.

Frequency of reported IT dependence symptoms overall and by IT dependence

Sample, N = 389+ IT Dependence N = 88− IT Dependence N = 301P
mCAGE
Cut down: have you tried to stop tanning, but still continue?65 (16.7)53 (60.2)12 (4.0)<0.001
Annoyed: do you ever get annoyed when people tell you not to tan?179 (46.0)75 (85.2)104 (34.6)<0.001
Guilty: do you ever feel guilty that you tan too much?130 (33.4)63 (71.6)67 (22.3)<0.001
Eye opener: when you wake up in the morning, do you want to tan?49 (12.6)35 (40.2)14 (4.7)<0.001
≥2 CAGE Symptoms111 (28.5)88 (100)23 (20.7)<0.001
mDSM
Tolerance: do you feel that you need to spend more time tanning in order to maintain your tan?169 (43.4)64 (72.7)105 (34.9)<0.001
Withdrawal: do you feel unattractive or anxious to tan if you do not maintain your tan?173 (44.7)68 (78.2)105 (34.9)<0.001
Should decrease/stop: do you think you should stop tanning or decrease the time you spend tanning?150 (38.6)61 (69.3)89 (29.6)<0.001
Unsuccessful quitting: have you tried to stop tanning, but still continue?64 (16.5)53 (60.9)11 (3.6)<0.001
Missed obligations: have you ever missed a social engagement, work, school, or other recreational activities because you went tanning instead?34 (8.7)16 (18.2)18 (6.0)<0.001
Trouble at work or home: have you ever gotten into trouble at work, with family, or with friends due to tanning?22 (5.7)13 (14.8)9 (3.0)<0.001
Tan despite knowing risks: Do you continue to tan despite knowing that it is bad for your skin?325 (83.6)86 (97.7)239 (79.4)<0.001
Tan despite personal/family history of skin cancer: have you ever had a skin cancer or do you have a first-degree relative (mother, father, sister, brother) who has had skin cancer?72 (18.6)17 (19.5)55 (18.3)0.799
 ≥3 mDSM Symptoms191 (49.1)88 (100)103 (34.2)<0.001
Positive Screen for IT Dependence88 (22.6)88 (100)0 (0)n/a
  • NOTE: Positive screen for IT dependence defined as ≥2 mCAGE and ≥3 mDSM symptoms endorsed. Cells display no. (%).

  • Abbreviations: mCAGE, modified CAGE; mDSM, modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV.