Table 3.

Serum cotinine and urinary total NNAL by tobacco product use pattern categories among tobacco users, NHANES 1999–2012

CIGNCCNCNCC&NCCIG&NCCIG&NCCPOLY
Cotinine (ng/mL)
N7,277602521189816913
Mean
Arithmetic (95% CI)204.8 (199.2–210.1)86.1 (99.3–99.3)322.0 (289.3–354.6)266.1 (120.4–411.8)229.8 (199.3–260.3)192.3 (169.0–215.6)136.5 (50.0–222.9)
Geometric
 Unadjusted (95% CI)125.5 (118.6–132.8)14.5 (10.9–19.3)174.6 (141.7–215.1)110.1 (39.9–303.9)182.2 (146.8–226.1)129.0 (105.1–158.5)44.0 (10.01–193.0)
 Adjusted (95% CI)94.0 (87.6–100.7)9.7 (7.4–12.7)111.0 (89.2–138.2)70.0 (31.1–157.7)b156.2 (125.2–194.8)a,b102.8 (83.4–126.6)c38.6 (8.9–167.4)
NNAL
N3,238270228846677
Arithmetic (ng/mL) (95% CI)0.37 (0.3–0.4)0.2 (0.2–0.3)1.7 (1.3–2.2)0.87 (0.6–1.1)0.52 (0.4–0.7)
Arithmetic (pg/mL) (95% CI)368.8 (332–7-405.1)204.4 (131.6–277.1)1321.8 (1029.7–1613.9)575.2 (370.3–780.0)304.5 (222.4–386.5)
Geometric (pg/mL)
 Unadjusted (95% CI)195.7 (173.9–220.2)43.9 (29.6–60.1)538.2 (417.1–694.4)348.5 (204.1–595.0)196.1 (138.9–277.0)
 Adjusted (95% CI)143.3 (132.0–155.6)36.6 (25.5–52.7)397.6 (302.8–522.3)402.3 (260.2–621.9)a197.7 (155.5–251.4)a,c
  • NOTE: Adjusted estimates are adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Tobacco product use in dual- and poly-tobacco use T-PUPs were compared with corresponding single-product category T-PUPs (e.g., CIG&NC, CIG&NCC, and POLY were compared with CIG). Urinary total NNAL estimates were adjusted for urinary creatinine.

  • Abbreviations: CIG, cigarettes only; CIG&NC, dual cigarettes and noncombustibles; CIG&NCC, dual cigarettes and noncigarette combustibles; NC, noncombustibles only; NCC, noncigarette combustibles only; NCC&NC, dual noncigarette combustibles and noncombustible; POLY, poly-tobacco.

  • aP < 0.05, reference = CIG.

  • bP < 0.05, reference = NC.

  • cP < 0.05, reference = NCC.