Table 3.

Trends in the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposurea among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors in the United States from the NHANES, by selected sociodemographic characteristics and smoking history: 1999–2012

1999/20002001/20022003/20042005/20062007/20082009/20102011/2012AAPC
% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
All nonsmoking adult cancer survivors39.61 (27.88–51.34)31.45 (24.60–38.30)38.13 (30.22–46.03)27.66 (20.26–35.06)34.59 (21.57–47.60)19.07 (13.17–24.98)15.68 (9.38–21.98)−6.3 (−11.1–−1.2)
Age
 20–39 years39.50 (0.00a–83.12)53.86 (24.31–83.42)65.32 (33.58–97.07)37.95 (14.05–61.85)44.52 (10.04–79.00)19.69 (3.70–35.68)29.08 (4.47–53.69)−7.5 (−15.2–0.9)
 40–59 years34.94 (14.15–55.72)30.72 (19.01–42.44)41.27 (24.68–57.86)30.64 (14.69–46.59)37.69 (17.33–58.06)23.56 (9.49–37.69)22.56 (8.14–36.97)−2.9 (−7.9–2.4)
 ≥60 years40.95 (29.95–51.95)29.14 (22.46–35.81)34.42 (26.59–42.24)25.39 (18.11–32.67)32.49 (21.43–43.56)17.20 (9.66–24.73)11.51 (6.43–16.59)−7.1 (−12.8–1.1)
Gender
 Female43.04 (30.37–55.70)26.84 (17.97–35.71)35.69 (24.29–47.09)25.61 (15.02–36.21)35.14 (20.65–49.62)19.04 (11.37–26.70)16.17 (8.23–24.10)−6.1 (−11.3 to −0.6)
 Male35.20 (23.55–46.85)37.71 (28.66–46.76)41.47 (31.59–51.35)31.59 (19.85–43.32)33.99 (18.24–49.75)19.13 (14.09–24.16)15.04 (5.81–24.28)−6.4 (−13.8–1.5)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic whites39.10 (26.72–51.49)27.70 (22.27–33.13)36.66 (28.20–45.12)25.60 (17.74–33.47)31.83 (17.97 45.69)16.85 (10.21–23.49)14.27 (6.82–21.73)−5.9 (−11.9–0.5)
 Non-Hispanic blacks54.63 (33.38–75.89)58.89 (45.58–72.20)69.18 (51.48–86.88)44.20 (23.76–64.64)70.84 (60.85–80.83)58.07 (35.77–80.37)33.98 (16.97–50.99)0.3 (−5.8–6.8)
 Mexican Hispanics21.27 (0.00a–42.67)38.43 (23.62–53.25)38.47 (14.05–62.90)14.70 (0.00a–33.43)36.93 (12.54–61.33)17.74 (3.51–31.96)30.82 (0.00a–66.43)−3.4 (−12.1–6.1)
 Others40.80 (0.00b–85.34)93.37 (8.02–100.00c)29.39 (0.00a–60.80)51.58 (23.06–80.10)41.15 (14.17–68.12)28.47 (8.94–47.99)16.81 (2.68–30.94)−13.8 (−20.4 to −6.7)
Educational level
 Greater than high school36.73 (22.19–51.27)25.82 (17.96–33.68)34.26 (23.39 45.13)21.32 (11.79–30.85)24.64 (13.19–36.10)14.12 (7.65–20.59)11.73 (3.98–19.48)−7.7 (−13.1 to −1.9)
 High school34.37 (22.33–46.41)39.19 (22.12–56.27)40.28 (26.88–53.68)36.44 (19.90–52.97)49.43 (33.09–65.78)19.68 (12.51–26.86)32.96 (16.28–49.64)−2.3 (−9.9–5.9)
 Less than high school55.01 (37.32–72.71)42.72 (27.31–58.14)44.37 (22.98–65.77)39.34 (26.40–52.28)48.06 (29.10–67.02)44.19 (33.10–55.28)16.89 (8.80–24.97)−3.8 (−10.0–2.9)
Household income level
 ≥300% federal poverty level35.26 (15.33–55.18)25.05 (16.82–33.28)33.10 (22.48–43.72)19.79 (11.71–27.87)30.03 (17.24–42.82)16.05 (10.02–22.08)11.70 (3.86–19.54)−6.4 (−13.1–0.7)
 100%–299% federal poverty level35.93 (21.27–50.60)33.79 (26.70–40.91)38.20 (28.86–47.53)31.23 (21.18–41.27)34.42 (19.27–49.56)21.29 (12.49–30.09)15.18 (6.43–23.93)−5.1 (−9.9 to −0.1)
 <100% federal poverty level67.67 (47.02–88.32)57.36 (13.26–100.00c)62.99 (38.74–87.25)71.61 (43.90–99.32)58.91 (35.04–82.78)43.40 (22.67–64.13)23.28 (2.10–44.46)−7.5 (−14.3 to −0.3)
Smoking status
 Never smokers32.14 (19.54–44.75)27.49 (18.43–36.55)27.72 (18.32–37.13)24.56 (16.23–32.89)29.02 (19.97–38.07)15.43 (9.69–21.17)13.42 (5.11–21.72)−5.4 (−10.5–0.1)
 Former smokers48.62 (34.86–62.38)35.62 (28.06–43.18)46.41 (36.77–56.06)31.44 (20.01–42.87)41.17 (21.20–61.13)23.97 (16.06–31.88)18.83 (6.99–30.66)−5.6 (−11.1–0.2)

Abbreviations: AAPC, average annual percent change; CI, confidence interval.

  • aSecondhand smoke exposure was defined as having serum cotinine levels 0.05–10 ng/mL among nonsmokers.

  • bLower bound of CI less than 0%.

  • cUpper bound of CI greater than 100%.