Table 1.

Characteristics of the participants by periodontal disease status, WHI-OS

Periodontal diseasePeriodontal disease
YesNo
N (%)aN (%)aPb
Age(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)<0.01
 Mean (SD)c67.90 (6.96)68.78 (7.29)
 (Missing n = 0)00
Race/ethnicity(n = 17,059)(n = 48,646)<0.01
 Non-Hispanic white14,509 (85.05)41,532 (85.38)
 Black or African American1,378 (8.08)3,115 (6.40)
 Hispanic/Latino479 (2.81)1,719 (3.53)
 Asian/Pacific Islanders430 (2.52)1,540 (3.17)
 American Indians71 (0.42)202 (0.42)
 Other192 (1.13)538 (1.11)
 (Missing n = 164)44120
Region(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)<0.01
 Northeast4,346 (25.41)11,063 (22.69)
 South4,297 (25.12)12,054 (24.72)
 Midwest3,393 (19.84)11,413 (23.40)
 West5,067 (29.63)14,236 (29.19)
 (Missing n = 0)00
Education(n = 16,975)(n = 48,388)<0.01
 Up to high school diploma or GED2,653 (15.63)10,545 (21.79)
 Some college (vocational or associate degree)5,950 (35.05)17,727 (36.64)
 College graduate8,372 (49.32)20,116 (41.57)
 (Missing n = 506)128378
BMI (Kg/m2)d(n = 17,079)(n = 48,682)0.07
 Underweight and normal weight (≤24.9)6,737 (39.45)19,568 (40.20)
 Overweight (≥25.0–29.9)6,044 (35.39)16,769 (34.45)
 Obesity (≥30.0)4,298 (25.17)12,345 (25.36)
 (Missing n = 108)2484
Physical activity (MET hrs/wk)(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)0.42
 (Mean, SD)c13.51 (13.60)13.42 (14.01)
 (Missing n = 0)00
Smoking status(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)<0.01
 Never smoked7,245 (42.36)26,852 (55.06)
 Past smoker8,811 (51.52)20,200 (41.42)
 Current smoker1,047 (6.12)1,714 (3.51)
 (Missing n = 0)00
Pack years of smoking(n = 16,664)(n = 47,665)<0.01
 Mean, (SD)c13.50 (20.25)7.97 (15.78)
 (Missing n = 1,540)4391,101
Passive smoking exposure (secondhand smoking exposure quantified)(n = 16,560)(n = 47,233)<0.01
 None724 (4.37)3,040 (6.44)
 No childhood + any adult4,823 (29.12)14,469 (30.63)
 Childhood < 10 yrs + any adult1,620 (9.78)4,350 (9.21)
 Childhood ≥ 10 yrs + adult home < 20 yrs + adult work < 10 yrs3,272 (19.76)10,248 (21.70)
 Childhood ≥ 10 yrs + adult home < 20 yrs + adult work ≥ 10 yrs2,055 (12.41)4,884 (10.34)
 Childhood ≥ 10 yrs + adult home ≥ 20 yrs + adult work < 10 yrs1,671 (10.09)4,882 (10.34)
 Childhood ≥ 10 yrs + adult home ≥ 20 yrs + adult work ≥ 10 yrs2,395 (14.46)5,360 (11.35)
 (Missing n = 2,076)5431,533
Alcohol intake(n = 17,040)(n = 48,560)<0.01
 Nondrinker1,292 (7.58)5,724 (11.79)
 Past drinker2,909 (17.07)8,674 (17.86)
 <1 drink/month1,838 (10.79)5,808 (11.96)
 <1 drink/week3,443 (20.21)9,942 (20.47)
 1 to <7 drinks/week4,899 (28.75)12,603 (25.95)
 7+ drinks/week2,659 (15.60)5,809 (11.96)
 (Missing n = 269)63206
Dietary intake(n = 17,102)(n = 48,762)
 Dietary energy, mean (kcal)1,499.5 (617.3)1,472.7 (630.9)<0.01
(Missing n = 5)14
 Fruit (total no.), Med servings/day2.01 (1.30)2.04 (1.30)0.01
(Missing n = 5)14
 Vegetables (total no.), Med servings/day2.30 (1.36)2.27 (1.37)0.03
(Missing n = 5)14
Supplement use (multivitamin)(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)0.75
 No9,163 (53.58)26,058 (53.43)
 Yes7,940 (46.42)22,708 (46.57)
 (Missing n = 0)00
Dietary and supplement (calcium)(n = 17,102)(n = 48,762)0.02
 Mean (SD)c795.1 (457.1)785.7 (464.3)
 (Missing n = 5)14
Dietary and supplement (Vitamin D)(n = 17,102)(n = 48,762)0.04
 Mean (SD)c4.46 (3.19)4.40 (3.25)
 (Missing n = 5)14
E-Alone status(n = 16,337)(n = 46,582)<0.01
 Never used9,233 (56.52)25,171 (54.04)
 Past use2,776 (16.99)8,487 (18.22)
 Current use4,328 (26.49)12,924 (27.74)
 (Missing n = 2,950)7662,184
E + P status(n = 16,169)(n = 45,892)<0.01
 Never used8,975 (55.51)27,105 (59.06)
 Past use3,113 (19.25)8,394 (18.29)
 Current use4,081 (25.24)10,393 (22.65)
 (Missing n = 3,808)9342,874
E-Alone and E + P status combined(n = 16,633)(n = 47,311)0.02
 Never used either4,616 (27.75)13,479 (28.49)
 Past use of either E-alone or E + P3,608 (21.69)10,515 (22.23)
 Current use of either E-alone or E+P8,409 (50.56)23,317 (49.28)
 (Missing n = 1,925)4701,455
Diabetes, diagnosed/treated(n = 17,087)(n = 48,710)0.20
 No16,515 (96.65)47,178 (96.85)
 Yes572 (3.35)1,532 (3.15)
 (Missing n = 72)1656
Routine dental checkups(n = 17,082)(n = 48,709)<0.01
 Not gone in past 3 years763 (4.47)3,255 (6.68)
 ≥2 times/year13,265 (77.65)31,566 (64.81)
 Once/year1,602 (9.38)8,323 (17.09)
 <1/year416 (2.44)1,466 (3.01)
 Whenever needed1,036 (6.06)4,099 (8.42)
 (Missing n = 78)2157
Family (male or female) history of any cancer(n = 16,900)(n = 48,294)0.08
 No5,937 (35.13)17,329 (35.88)
 Yes10,963 (64.87)30,965 (64.12)
 (Missing n = 675)203472
Total (any) cancere diagnosis(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)<0.01
 No14,831 (86.72)43,360 (88.91)
 Yes2,272 (13.28)5,406 (11.09)
 (Missing n = 0)00
  • aNumber of valid responses with percentages (in parentheses).

  • bP value for t test (continuous variable) and χ2 (categorical); statistical significance level set at P < 0.05.

  • cMean (SD).

  • dBMI categories based on WHO classification system collapsed further into three categories as shown: (underweight + normal weight; overweight; and obese).

  • eCancers included in the analyses of total cancer are those of the adrenal gland, anus, appendix, biliary tract, bladder, bone, limb, brain, breast, cervix, central nervous system, colon, connective tissues, endometrium, endocrine system, esophagus, eye and adnexa, gall bladder, genital organs, gums, heart, kidney, larynx, liver, lung, meninges, mouth, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, other digestive organs, ovary, pancreas, parotid, peritoneum, pyriform sinus, recto-sigmoid junction, rectum, renal pelvis, respiratory system, salivary gland, accessory sinus, small intestine, stomach, thymus, thyroid, tonsil, ureter, urinary organs, uterus, vagina, vulva, certain undetermined/unknown sites; malignant neoplasms of the hematopoietic system including Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma, and melanoma skin cancers.