Table 2.

Number of incident cases (annualized risk, %) and risk of incident cancera,b and periodontal disease overall and according to smoking status of the WHI-OS

OutcomeCancer casesPeriodontal diseasePeriodontal diseaseUnadjusted HR (95% CI)dMV-adjustede HR (95% CI)d
NYesNo
N (%)cN (%)c
(n = 17,103)(n = 48,766)
Total cancer7,1492,136 (1.47)5,013 (1.24)1.17 (1.12–1.23)1.14 (1.08–1.20)
 Never-smokers3,3107772,5331.12 (1.04–1.22)
 Former smokers3,4271,1822,2451.21 (1.13–1.30)
 Current smokers4121772351.20 (0.98–1.46)
Melanoma of the skin547167 (0.11)380 (0.09)1.22 (1.01–1.46)1.23 (1.02–1.48)
 Never-smokers260741861.42 (1.08–1.85)
 Former smokers272851871.03 (0.79–1.32)
 Current smokers1587N/A
Breast2,416714 (0.48)1,702 (0.41)1.17 (1.07–1.27)1.13 (1.03–1.23)
 Never-smokers1,1632639001.05 (0.92–1.21)
 Former smokers1,1554067491.22 (1.08–1.37)
 Current smokers9845531.32 (0.89–1.97)
Lung and bronchus855334 (0.23)521 (0.13)1.78 (1.55–2.04)1.31 (1.14–1.51)
 Never-smokers150291210.89 (0.59–1.33)
 Former smokers5402293111.72 (1.45–2.04)
 Current smokers16576891.33 (0.98–1.81)
Upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e., esophagus and stomach)9440 (0.03)54 (0.01)2.05 (1.36–3.09)2.04 (1.35–3.09)
 Never-smokers4015252.26 (1.19–4.29)
 Former smokers4823252.16 (1.22–3.81)
 Current smokers624N/A
Pancreas27266 (0.04)206 (0.05)0.88 (0.67–1.17)0.89 (0.67–1.18)
 Never-smokers141271140.89 (0.58–1.35)
 Former smokers12135860.95 (0.64–1.40)
 Current smokers1046N/A
Gall bladder, and biliary tract, parts of6022 (0.01)38 (<0.01)1.60 (0.95–2.71)1.73 (1.01–2.95)
 Never-smokers369271.26 (0.59–2.68)
 Former smokers2211112.24 (0.97–5.18)
 Current smokers220N/A
Lower digestive tract/organs (i.e., small intestine, colon, recto-sigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal)712188 (0.12)524 (0.12)0.99 (0.84–1.17)1.00 (0.85–1.19)
 Never-smokers365762890.99 (0.77–1.27)
 Former smokers3171022151.10 (0.87–1.40)
 Current smokers3010200.85 (0.40–1.82)
Colon535146 (0.10)389 (0.09)1.04 (0.86–1.26)1.05 (0.87–1.28)
 Never-smokers261602011.13 (0.85–1.51)
 Former smokers252771751.05 (0.80–1.37)
 Current smokers229131.19 (0.51–2.81)
Rectum8018 (0.01)62 (0.01)0.81 (0.48–1.36)0.79 (0.46–1.36)
 Never-smokers497420.63 (0.28–1.40)
 Former smokers2911181.25 (0.58–2.71)
 Current smokers202N/A
Female genital organs (overall)819232 (0.15)587 (0.14)1.09 (0.94–1.27)1.10 (0.95–1.29)
 Never-smokers414993151.13 (0.90–1.42)
 Former smokers3681182501.06 (0.85–1.32)
 Current smokers3715221.02 (0.53–1.96)
Urinary tract system (overall)367111 (0.07)256 (0.06)1.20 (0.96–1.50)1.16 (0.92–1.45)
 Never-smokers173421311.19 (0.84–1.68)
 Former smokers172601121.23 (0.90–1.69)
 Current smokers229131.17 (0.49–2.78)
Lymphoid, and hematopoietic and related tissue820229 (0.15)591 (0.14)1.07 (0.92–1.25)1.11 (0.95–1.30)
 Never-smokers4191123071.34 (1.08–1.67)
 Former smokers3791112680.96 (0.77–1.19)
 Current smokers226160.60 (0.24–1.55)
Leukemia, all types23466 (0.04)168 (0.04)1.09 (0.82–1.44)1.10 (0.83–1.47)
 Never-smokers11332811.44 (0.96–2.17)
 Former smokers11532830.89 (0.59–1.34)
 Current smokers624N/A
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, all types442121 (0.08)321 (0.08)1.04 (0.85–1.29)1.08 (0.87–1.34)
 Never-smokers230561741.18 (0.87–1.59)
 Former smokers201631381.05 (0.78–1.42)
 Current smokers1129N/A
Multiple myeloma and malignant plasma neoplasms14136 (0.02)105 (0.02)0.95 (0.65–1.38)1.05 (0.72–1.54)
 Never-smokers7821571.39 (0.85–2.30)
 Former smokers5913460.65 (0.35–1.20)
 Current smokers422N/A
  • aAnalyses of individual cancer sites were based on time to diagnosis of primary cancer for that particular site, independent of findings from other cancer sites; however, for the evaluation of regional and total cancers, we considered the time to first diagnosis of any cancer located within that group, whichever came first. Therefore, the sum of the individual cancers may not exactly approximate the values obtained when those cancers are considered as a group.

  • bCancer classifications based on ICD-CM - 10th revision of the U.S. National Clinical Modifications of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems coding system.

  • cNumber of valid responses with annualized risk, percentages (in parentheses).

  • dHR (95% CI): HR and 95% CI. HRs and annualized risk percentage not computed for cancer sites with <20 cases.

  • eMultivariate-adjusted model based on model adjustment for Age + pack-years + BMI only; however, for the stratified analyses on smoking status, multivariate-adjusted model based on Age + BMI only.