Table 2.

Weighted prevalence of secondhand smoke exposurea among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors in the United States from the NHANES: 1999–2012

Prevalence
Nonsmoking adult cancer survivors with SHSeNonsmoking adult cancer survivors with self-reported of household SHSe
Population groups and subgroups% (95% CI)% (95% CI)
All nonsmoking adult cancer survivors28.26 (24.97–31.55)4.53 (3.48–5.57)
Age
 20–39 years39.66 (28.80–50.52)10.52 (1.34–19.70)
 40–59 years30.86 (24.60–37.12)5.25 (3.09–7.41)
 ≥60 years26.05 (22.89–29.20)3.65 (2.74–4.57)
Gender
 Female27.24 (23.16–31.31)4.69 (3.13–6.25)
 Male29.66 (25.52–33.80)4.30 (2.87–5.74)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic whites26.14 (22.71–29.57)4.11 (3.09–5.13)
 Non-Hispanic blacks55.64 (48.08–63.20)11.13 (6.34–15.91)
 Mexican Hispanics27.69 (17.87–37.51)2.88 (0.06–5.70)
 Others41.56 (26.90–56.21)6.46 (0.00b–14.98)
Educational level
 Less than high school41.61 (34.86–48.35)6.90 (3.88–9.92)
 High school36.28 (30.57–41.98)5.71 (3.49–7.93)
 Greater than high school21.90 (18.31–25.49)3.49 (2.14–4.84)
Household income level
 ≥300% federal poverty level22.80 (19.11–26.49)3.15 (2.07–4.23)
 100%–299% federal poverty level29.58 (25.42–33.74)5.58 (3.69–7.47)
 <100% federal poverty level53.25 (40.48–66.01)13.87 (6.21–21.53)
Marital status
 Married/living with partner26.59 (22.99–30.20)4.95 (3.53–6.37)
 Widowed/divorced/separated31.40 (26.49–36.31)3.25 (2.05–4.45)
 Never married31.98 (16.93–47.04)5.46 (0.10–10.81)
Smoking status
 Never smokers22.98 (19.79–26.18)3.42 (2.16–4.68)
 Former smokers34.39 (29.49–39.29)5.81 (4.24–7.38)
Cigarette pack-years (former smokers only)
 ≤20 pack-years30.13 (24.18–36.07)17.00 (10.63–23.36)
 >20–40 pack-years33.85 (21.94–45.75)16.71 (6.03–27.40)
 >40 pack-years38.15 (31.21–45.08)16.75 (7.77–25.73)
Cancer site related to smoking
 No26.33 (22.88–29.78)3.70 (2.72–4.69)
 Yes35.59 (29.23–41.95)7.65 (4.66–10.64)
Number of years since first cancer diagnosis
 <2 years28.65 (22.91–34.40)5.02 (2.15–7.89)
 2–4 years34.19 (28.30–40.08)5.38 (2.45–8.32)
 5–9 years27.17 (22.10–32.24)4.05 (2.54–5.56)
 ≥10 years26.00 (21.90–30.10)4.18 (2.77–5.59)
History of cardiovascular disease
 No26.89 (23.34–30.45)4.09 (2.98–5.20)
 Yes33.76 (29.31–38.21)6.20 (3.95–8.44)
History of chronic respiratory disease
 No27.46 (24.22–30.70)4.06 (3.21–4.90)
 Yes30.81 (24.21–37.41)5.96 (3.12–8.80)
Routine place of medical care
 Yes28.08 (24.74–31.41)4.49 (3.43–5.54)
 No31.24 (21.56–40.92)5.24 (0.79–9.68)

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; SHSe, secondhand smoke exposure.

  • aSecondhand smoke exposure was defined as having serum cotinine levels 0.05–10 ng/mL among nonsmokers.

  • bLower bound of CI less than 0%.