Table 4.

Weighted multivariable associations between SHSea among nonsmoking adult cancer survivors in the United States and their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics—the NHANES: 1999–2012

NonsmokersNever smokersFormer smokers
aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Period
 1999–2000RefRefRef
 2001–20020.74 (0.38–1.42)0.89 (0.37–2.11)0.60 (0.30–1.24)
 2003–20040.96 (0.48–1.89)0.94 (0.40–2.20)0.85 (0.40–1.80)
 2005–20060.65 (0.32–1.31)0.85 (0.36–1.97)0.49 (0.21–1.15)
 2007–20080.87 (0.43–1.78)0.94 (0.41–2.14)0.80 (0.30–2.12)
 2009–20100.41 (0.21–0.84)0.50 (0.21–1.16)0.33 (0.15–0.74)
 2011–20120.27 (0.12–0.59)0.36 (0.13–1.05)0.20 (0.08–0.48)
Age
 20–39 yearsRefRefRef
 40–59 years0.61 (0.37–1.03)0.87 (0.39–1.93)0.28 (0.10–0.77)
 ≥60 years0.41 (0.24–0.68)0.45 (0.22–0.92)0.23 (0.09–0.60)
Gender
 MaleRefRefRef
 Female0.68 (0.53–0.88)0.65 (0.43–0.96)0.84 (0.59–1.21)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic whitesRefRefRef
 Non-Hispanic blacks3.09 (2.12–4.50)3.36 (1.88–6.03)2.83 (1.80–4.43)
 Mexican Hispanics0.62 (0.32–1.19)0.77 (0.32–1.87)0.43 (0.17–1.08)
 Others1.66 (0.91–3.02)1.21 (0.56–2.60)3.01 (1.27–7.16)
Educational level
 Greater than high schoolRefRefRef
 High school1.83 (1.35–2.50)2.12 (1.31–3.44)1.54 (0.98–2.41)
 Less than high school1.99 (1.32–3.01)2.06 (1.28–3.32)1.97 (1.07–3.28)
Household income level
 ≥300% federal poverty levelRefRefRef
 100%–299% federal poverty level1.11 (0.83–1.50)1.24 (0.83–1.86)1.04 (0.70–1.55)
 <100% federal poverty level2.63 (1.49–4.62)2.95 (1.53–5.69)2.79 (1.40–5.58)
Cancer site related to smoking
 NoRefRefRef
 Yes1.38 (1.02–1.86)1.80 (1.14–2.84)1.01 (0.68–1.51)
Number of years since first cancer diagnosis
 <2 yearsRefRefRef
 2–4 years1.14 (0.76–1.70)1.15 (0.59–2.22)1.08 (0.63–1.86)
 5–9 years0.90 (0.60–1.35)0.92 (0.48–1.78)0.83 (0.48–1.42)
 ≥10 years0.82 (0.59–1.16)0.78 (0.43–1.40)0.77 (0.46–1.31)
Cardiovascular disease
 NoRefRefRef
 Yes1.28 (0.99–1.66)0.99 (0.64–1.54)1.42 (0.97–2.07)
  • Abbreviations: aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ref, reference group.

  • aSecondhand smoke exposure was defined as having serum cotinine levels 0.05–10 ng/mL among nonsmokers.