Table 4.

Univariate associations between subject characteristics and one-year period prevalence of HPV infection by genus in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study (n = 505)

α-HPV positivity (n=109)β-HPV positivity (n=138)
VariableCategoriesn (%)OR (95% CI)n (%)OR (95% CI)
Age, y18–2224 (22.02)117 (12.32)1
22–2924 (22.02)0.39 (0.20–0.77)37 (26.81)1.17 (0.59–2.30)
30–3943 (39.45)0.48 (0.26–0.88)45 (32.61)0.84 (0.44–1.62)
≥4018 (16.51)0.24 (0.12–0.49)39 (28.26)1.06 (0.54–2.08)
EthnicityWhite67 (61.47)190 (65.22)1
Nonwhite42 (38.53)1.09 (0.70–1.68)48 (34.78)0.87 (0.58–1.32)
Education<Elementary21 (19.27)132 (23.19)1
Elementary65 (59.63)1.36 (0.79–2.35)81 (58.70)1.07 (0.67–1.72)
High School21 (19.27)2.21 (1.10–4.44)23 (16.67)1.49 (0.78–2.83)
College/University2 (1.83)1.41 (0.27–7.29)2 (1.45)0.83 (0.16–4.20)
SmokingNever48 (44.04)167 (48.55)1
Current39 (35.78)1.20 (0.75–1.94)41 (29.71)0.83 (0.53–1.30)
Former22 (20.18)1.37 (0.77–2.43)30 (21.74)1.37 (0.81–2.32)
No. pregnancies0–127 (24.77)121 (15.22)1
2–349 (44.95)0.55 (0.31–0.96)65 (47.10)1.14 (0.64–2.03)
4–619 (17.43)0.29 (0.15–0.57)44 (31.88)1.20 (0.65–2.21)
≥713 (11.93)0.69 (0.31–1.51)7 (5.07)0.46 (0.18–1.17)
Oral contraceptive useNever20 (18.35)126 (18.84)1
<6 years60 (55.05)0.97 (0.54–1.73)74 (53.62)0.90 (0.53–1.53)
≥6 years29 (26.61)0.73 (0.38–1.38)38 (27.54)0.71 (0.40–1.28)
Condom useNo30 (27.52)154 (39.13)1
Yes79 (72.48)1.69 (1.06–2.70)84 (60.87)0.86 (0.58–1.29)
Hygienic tampon useNo89 (81.7)1128 (92.8)1
Yes20 (18.3)2.73 (1.48–5.04)10 (7.2)0.64 (0.31–1.31)
Menstrual cloth useNo74 (67.9)189 (64.5)1
Yes35 (32.1)0.72 (0.46–1.14)49 (35.5)0.87 (0.58–1.30)
Vaginal douchingNever/occasional98 (89.9)1132 (95.7)1
Frequent11 (10.1)2.23 (1.03–4.83)6 (4.3)0.65 (0.26–1.62)
Age at first intercourse20–5027 (24.77)138 (27.54)1
18–1922 (20.18)1.03 (0.55–1.93)31 (22.46)1.03 (0.59–1.80)
16–1727 (24.77)1.34 (0.73–2.44)39 (28.26)1.44 (0.84–2.47)
Embedded Image 1533 (30.28)1.35 (0.76–2.40)30 (21.74)0.77 (0.44–1.33)
Lifetime number of sex partners0–141 (37.61)173 (52.90)1
2–339 (35.78)1.37 (0.84–2.23)53 (38.41)0.97 (0.64–1.49)
4+29 (26.61)2.25 (1.29–3.91)12 (8.70)0.34 (0.18–0.67)
Sex partners in the last 5 years0–171 (65.14)1115 (83.33)1
≥238 (34.86)3.18 (1.96–5.16)23 (16.67)0.82 (0.49–1.37)
Sex partners in the last year0–196 (88.07)1134 (97.10)1
≥210 (9.17)5.03 (1.94–13.11)3 (2.17)0.52 (0.15–1.83)
Anal sex practiced between visitsNo61 (56.0)181 (58.7)1
Yes48 (44.0)1.21 (0.79–1.86)57 (41.3)1.05 (0.70–1.58)
Lifetime number of anal sex partnersNever67 (61.5)186 (62.3)1
137 (33.9)1.03 (0.65–1.62)48 (34.8)1.05 (0.69–1.59)
2–35 (4.6)2.09 (0.68–6.44)4 (2.9)1.08 (0.33–3.55)
Received oral sexNever47 (43.1)164 (46.4)1
Ever62 (56.9)1.24 (0.81–1.90)74 (53.6)1.05 (0.72–1.56)
Annual frequency of masturbation acts in the last 5 years080 (73.4)197 (70.3)1
<113 (11.9)0.56 (0.29–1.05)25 (18.1)0.98 (0.58–1.64)
1–96 (5.5)0.97 (0.38–2.48)8 (5.8)1.10 (0.47–2.60)
10–355 (4.6)1.21 (0.42–3.46)6 (4.3)1.21 (0.45–3.27)
≥365 (4.6)1.54 (0.52–4.56)2 (1.4)0.37 (0.08–1.68)
History of sexually transmitted diseasesNo81 (74.31)1105 (76.09)1
HPV-STD8 (7.34)2.49 (0.99–6.31)4 (2.90)0.66 (0.22–2.03)
Other STD20 (18.35)0.94 (0.54–1.62)28 (20.29)1.03 (0.63–1.69)