Table 3.

Characteristics of studies on circadian genes and prostate cancer risk

Author, countryStudy design, populationNumber of prostate cancerData collectionAdjusted covariablesExposure definitionRisk estimate (95% CI)
Chu et al. (2008), ChinaPopulation-based case-control study187 cases 242 controlsFace-to-face interview Blood sample for DNA genotypingAge5 variants in 5 circadian genesOR = 1.70 (1.1–2.7)
PER3 (54-base pair repeat length variant)
CRY2 (rs1401417:G>C)
CSNK1E (rs1005473:A>C)
NPAS2 (rs2305160:G)
PER1 (rs2585405:G>C)
Zhu et al. (2009), Washington, United StatesPopulation-based case-control study in residents of King County in Washington1,308 cases 1,266 controlsFace-to-face interview Blood sample for DNA genotypingAge, family history of PCAGenotyping of 41 tag-SNPs in 10 circadian genesOR = 0.52 (0.30–0.91)
PER1, PER2, PER3OR = 0.62 (0.38–1.01)
CSNK1E
CRY1, CRY2
ARNTL (rs 969485)
CLOCK
NPAS2 (rs10206435)
TIMELESS
Markt et al (2015c)Meta-analysis of 3 cohort studies: AGES-Reykjavik, HPFS (United States), Physician Health Study (United States)283 casesBlood sample for DNA genotyping_Genotyping of 12 circadian genes PER1, PER2, PER3 CSNK1E CRY1, CRY2 ARNTL CLOCK NPAS2 TIMELESS MTNR1A, MTNR1BOR = 0.92 (0.71–1.19) OR = 1.00 (0.59–1.68)

Abbreviation: PCA, prostate cancer.