Table 3.

ORs and HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer and nut consumption in EAGLE and AARP, by smoking status

Quintile of total nut consumption (frequency/d) in EAGLEQuintile of total nut consumption (frequency/d) in AARP
Nut consumptiona12345Ptrend12345Ptrend
All participants
 Cases/Controls821/748121/122217/291311/397251/3602,484/48,7334,834/117,6135,270/142,3663,053/84,3362,892/84,204
 Crude1.000.900.680.710.64<0.0011.000.780.700.690.65<0.001
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.69–1.18)(0.56–0.83)(0.60–0.85)(0.53–0.77)(reference)(0.74–0.82)(0.67–0.73)(0.65–0.72)(0.62–0.69)
 Multivariableb1.000.92)0.760.900.740.0171.000.930.890.890.86<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.58–1.45)(0.59–0.99)(0.71–1.14)(0.57–0.95)(reference)(0.89–0.98)(0.85–0.94)(0.84–0.94)(0.81–0.91)
Current smokers
 Cases/Controls423/19058/34107/73138/93120/83992/6,6111,855/13,9462,033/15,3581,141/8,5711,022/7,824
 Crude1.000.770.660.670.650.0101.000.850.840.840.83<0.001
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.49–1.21)(0.47–0.93)(0.49–0.91)(0.47–0.90)(reference)(0.79–0.92)(0.78–0.90)(0.78–0.92)(0.76–0.90)
 Multivariableb1.000.910.740.700.680.0501.000.940.930.920.880.004
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.50–1.65)(0.50–1.10)(0.49–1.00)(0.47–1.00)(reference)(0.87–1.02)(0.86–1.01)(0.85–1.01)(0.80–0.96)
Former smokers
 Cases/Controls367/34433/2997/128150/171114/1661,233/22,9952,560/57,8982,661/69,9311,583/41,8211,570/41,451
 Crude1.001.070.710.820.640.0021.000.790.680.680.68<0.001
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.63–1.79)(0.53–0.96)(0.63–1.07)(0.49–0.85)(reference)(0.74–0.85)(0.64–0.73)(0.63–0.73)(0.63–0.73)
 Multivariableb1.000.930.781.110.810.2131.000.930.850.860.85<0.001
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.45–1.91)(0.55–1.11)(0.81–1.52)(0.57–1.13)(reference)(0.87–1.00)(0.80–0.92)(0.79–0.92)(0.79–0.92)
Never smokers
 Cases/Controls29/21230/5913/9021/13217/111143/16,346262/41,503363/51,887212/30,900216/32,055
 Crude1.003.721.061.161.120.7301.000.700.780.770.760.010
  (95% CI)(reference)(2.07–6.68)(0.52–2.12)(0.64–2.12)(0.59–2.13)(reference)(0.57–0.86)(0.64–0.94)(0.62–0.95)(0.61–0.93)
 Multivariableb1.001.431.101.090.910.7961.000.750.840.800.770.020
  (95% CI)(reference)(0.71–2.89)(0.51–2.36)(0.56–2.11)(0.43–1.90)(reference)(0.61–0.92)(0.69–1.02)(0.65–1.00)(0.62–0.96)
  • NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, data are reported as OR (95% CI) for EAGLE and HR (95% CI) for AARP.

  • aNut consumption in sex-specific quintiles based on distribution of controls for each sex for EAGLE: quintile 1 (nonconsumers), quintile 2 (1–6 times/y), quintile 3 (7–11 times/y), quintile 4 (once a month up to 3 times a month), and quintile 5 (once a week up to 5 times a week, and once a day up to 2 or more times a day); nut consumption in sex-specific quintiles based on distribution of controls for AARP: quintile 1 (nonconsumers), quintile 2 (1–6 times/y), quintile 3 (7–11 times/y), quintile 4 (once a month up to 2–3 times a month), and quintile 5 (once a week up to 6 times a week, and once a day up to 2 or more times a day).

  • bAdjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, BMI, cigarette smoking status, cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (continuous, 0 for never smokers), years since last cigarette smoked (continuous, 0 for never smokers), and intakes of red and processed meat, fruits, vegetables, and alcohol in EAGLE; adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI, energy intake, cigarette smoking status, cigarette smoking dose (categorical, 0 for never smokers), years since last cigarette smoked (categorical, 0 for never smokers), and intakes of red and processed meat, fruits, vegetables, and alcohol for AARP.