Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of the EAGLE study by lung cancer cases and controls of nut consumption

Quintile of total nut consumption (frequency/d) in controlsa
12345
CharacteristicsControls (n = 1,918)Cases (n = 1,721)(n = 748)(n = 122)(n = 291)(n = 397)(n = 360)
Sex, %
 Male1,387 (80.59)1,485 (77.42)652 (87.17)0 (0)240 (82.47)319 (80.45)274 (76.11)
Age,b y65.49 (8.60)66.31 (8.33)66.96 (8.36)64.10 (10.94)63.78 (8.40)64.92 (8.05)64.93 (8.52)
BMI,b kg/m226.00 (3.85)25.81 (4.18)26.30 (4.11)25.15 (4.07)25.80 (3.49)26.18 (3.76)25.64 (3.50)
Education, n (%)
 Elementary642 (38.12)519 (27.07)231 (30.97)39 (31.97)69 (23.71)94 (23.68)86 (23.89)
 Middle school484 (28.91)555 (29.00)209 (28.02)37 (30.33)103 (35.40)103 (25.94)103 (28.61)
 ≥High school468 (27.44)771 (40.22)268 (35.92)42 (34.43)110 (37.80)185 (46.60)166 (46.11)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Neverc110 (6.33)604 (31.52)212 (28.42)59 (48.36)90 (30.93)132 (33.25)111 (30.83)
 Former761 (43.84)838 (43.74)344 (46.11)29 (23.77)128 (43.99)171 (43.07)166 (46.11)
 Current846 (48.73)473 (24.69)190 (25.47)34 (27.87)73 (25.09)93 (23.43)83 (23.06)
Cumulative pack-years of cigarette smokingb
 Ever48.29 (27.45)26.83 (21.37)30.51 (23.41)17.03 (16.69)26.41 (20.52)24.67 (19.74)24.11 (18.64)
 Former43.54 (28.82)22.62 (20.27)25.92 (22.03)6.87 (8.66)23.33 (19.48)20.13 (18.44)20.53 (18.48)
 Current52.60 (25.41)34.39 (21.22)38.90 (23.59)25.69 (17.08)31.80 (21.30)33.28 (19.23)31.26 (16.92)
Smoking intensity (packs/d)b,d0.79 (0.51)1.12 (0.55)0.86 (0.55)0.51 (0.38)0.79 (0.49)0.76 (0.48)0.73 (0.46)
Cigarettes smoking duration,b,d y31.78 (15.00)42.91 (11.71)33.54 (14.65)28.48 (17.14)31.76 (14.41)30.30 (15.03)30.57 (15.27)
Lifetime alcohol,b g/wk162.51 (152.59)203.71 (197.40)172.15 (171.12)71.35 (87.24)169.44 (139.0)158.90 (143.74)171.88 (139.04)
Total red meat,b servings/wk1.86 (1.59)2.36 (1.99)1.77 (1.60)1.57 (1.37)1.80 (1.51)2.05 (1.54)1.98 (1.73)
Total processed meat consumption,b servings/wk4.89 (3.87)5.87 (4.86)4.45 (3.87)3.99 (3.52)4.82 (3.65)5.39 (3.89)5.62 (3.98)
Total fruit and vegetables,b servings/wk26.70 (12.76)24.45 (12.82)24.31 (12.40)28.04 (13.39)25.75 (12.38)28.04 (12.38)30.44 (12.89)
Total quercetin,b servings/wk6.62 (4.68)5.66 (4.42)6.43 (4.85)6.31 (4.60)6.36 (4.38)6.82 (4.56)7.08 (4.65)
Total nut consumption,b servings/wk0.68 (1.52)0.55 (1.44)0.04 (0.03)0.07 (0.00)0.17 (0.00)0.41 (0.13)2.90 (2.47)
  • NOTE: Some percentages do not sum to 100 due to missing data.

  • aNut consumption in sex-specific quintiles based on distribution of controls for each sex: quintile 1 (nonconsumers), quintile 2 (1–6 times/y), quintile 3 (7–11 times/y), quintile 4 (once a month up to 3 times a month), and quintile 5 (once a week up to 5 times a week, and once a day up to 2 or more times a day).

  • bValues are shown in mean (SD).

  • cNever smokers of any tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, cigars).

  • dCurrent smokers and former smokers.