Table 1.

Characteristics of incident cases and population controls

CasesaPopulation controls
DemographicsAll (n = 823)AA (n = 422)EA (n = 401)All (n = 1,034)AA (n = 486)EA (n = 548)
Ageb (y), median (IQR)c64 (10)63 (11)65 (10)65 (12)64 (10)66 (13)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)d27.6 (5.7)27.7 (6.9)27.4 (5.2)29.0 (5.3)29.8 (5.5)28.3 (5.0)
Education, N (%)
 ≤High school298 (36)196 (47)102 (25)250 (24)145 (30)105 (19)
 Some college267 (32)157 (37)110 (27)268 (26)144 (30)124 (22)
 College145 (18)48 (11)97 (24)262 (25)105 (21)157 (29)
 Graduate112 (14)20 (5)92 (24)253 (25)91 (19)162 (30)
Baseline health factors
Family history of prostate cancere, N (%)
 No730 (89)377 (89)353 (88)963 (93)455 (94)508 (93)
 Yes93 (11)45 (11)48 (12)71 (7)31 (6)40 (7)
Smoking statusf, N (%)
 Current210 (26)147 (35)63 (16)151 (15)98 (20)53 (10)
 Former330 (40)150 (36)180 (45)466 (45)201 (42)265 (49)
 Never275 (33)120 (28)155 (39)408 (40)184 (38)224 (41)
 Did not provide8 (1)5 (1)3 (<1)9 (<1)3 (<1)6 (<1)
Diabetes, N (%)
 No634 (77)298 (71)336 (84)784 (76)336 (69)448 (82)
 Yes189 (23)124 (29)65 (16)250 (24)150 (31)100 (18)
Stageg, N (%)
 T1156 (19)67 (16)89 (22)
 T2551 (67)300 (71)251 (63)
 T367 (8)25 (6)42 (10)
 T449 (6)30 (7)19 (5)
Gleason score, N (%)
 ≤7677 (82)346 (82)331 (83)
 >7146 (18)76 (18)70 (17)
Disease aggressiveness, N (%)
 Nonaggressive diseaseh614 (92)318 (92)296 (92)
 Aggressive diseasei53 (8)27 (8)26 (8)
 PSA (ng/mL), median (IQR)6.4 (5.6)7.0 (7.4)6.0 (4.5)
  • aCases recruited within 1 year after disease diagnosis with an average interval between diagnosis and enrollment of 4.8 months.

  • bAge at study interview.

  • cIQR, interquartile range.

  • dSD, standard deviation.

  • eFirst-degree relative with prostate cancer.

  • fSmoking status describes cigarette smoking.

  • gPathologically confirmed using AJCC 7th Edition.

  • hCases with pathologically confirmed T1 or T2 and Gleason score ≤7.

  • iCases with pathologically confirmed T3 or T4 and Gleason score >7.