Table 4.

ORs and HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer and nut consumption in EAGLE and AARP, by smoking intensity in ever smokers

Quintile of total nut consumption (frequency/day) in EAGLEQuintile of total nut consumption (frequency/day) in AARP
Nut consumptiona12345Ptrend12345Ptrend
Ever smokers
 Smoked 1–20 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls517/42272/61140/166188/222158/2111,026/16.7842,011/42,4182,086/50,2281,211/29,4721,125/29,490
  Crude1.000.960.690.690.61<0.0011.000.750.650.650.61<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.67–1.39)(0.53–0.89)(0.55–0.87)(0.48–0.78)(reference)(0.69–0.81)(0.61–0.70)(0.60–0.71)(0.56–0.66)
  Multivariableb1.000.740.770.780.670.0081.000.920.850.860.84<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.45–1.22)(0.57–1.04)(0.60–1.03)(0.50–0.90)(reference)(0.85–0.99)(0.79–0.92)(0.79–0.93)(0.77–0.91)
 Smoked ≥21 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls273/11219/264/35100/4376/381,199/12,8222,404/29,4262,608/35,0611,513/20,9201,467/19,785
  Crude1.003.900.750.950.820.3861.000.840.760.740.76<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.89–17.01)(0.47–1.20)(0.63–1.45)(0.52–1.28)(reference)(0.78–0.90)(0.71–0.81)(0.69–0.80)(0.70–0.82)
  Multivariableb1.003.720.701.130.910.7231.000.960.930.910.890.003
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.65–21.13)(0.41–1.19)(0.69–1.84)(0.55–1.52)(reference)(0.89–1.03)(0.86–0.99)(0.84–0.98)(0.82–0.97)
Current smokers
 Smoked 1–20 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls273/15343/3270/6177/7874/72587/4,3431,039/9,3001,092/10,181616/5,649535/5,003
  Crude1.000.790.670.610.620.0121.000.800.760.770.76<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.48–1.30)(0.46–1.00)(0.42–0.87)(0.42–0.90)(reference)(0.72–0.88)(0.69–0.84)(0.69–0.86)(0.68–0.86)
  Multivariableb1.000.810.800.610.610.0301.000.900.860.850.830.003
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.42–1.58)(0.51–1.25)(0.40–0.93)(0.39–0.95)(reference)(0.81–1.00)0.77–0.95)(0.76–0.96)(0.74–0.94)
 Smoked ≥21 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls148/3513/234/1254/1541/11405/2,268816/4,646941/5,177525/2,922487/2,821
  Crude1.001.540.670.850.880.7451.000.930.940.950.900.117
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.33–7.12)(0.32–1.42)(0.43–1.68)(0.41–1.89)(reference)(0.82–1.04)(0.83–1.05)(0.84–1.08)(0.79–1.03)
  Multivariableb1.001.740.590.790.940.8971.001.011.051.040.940.401
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.23–12.96)(0.26–1.39)(0.36–1.72)(0.40–2.24)(reference)(0.90–1.14)(0.93–1.18)(0.91–1.18)(0.82–1.08)
Former smokers
 Smoked 1–20 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls242/26727/2967/105104/14379/139439/12,441972/33,118994/40,047595/23,823590/24,487
  Crude1.001.030.700.800.630.0051.000.800.670.680.66<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.59–1.78)(0.49–1.00)(0.59–1.09)(0.45–0.87)(reference)(0.72–0.90)(0.60–0.75)(0.60–0.77)(0.59–0.75)
  Multivariableb1.000.720.740.990.750.1621.000.940.840.860.840.008
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.33–1.54)(0.48–1.12)(0.68–1.43)(0.50–1.12)(reference)(0.84–1.06)(0.74–0.94)(0.76–0.98)(0.74–0.96)
 Smoked ≥21 cigarettes/d
  Cases/Controls125/776/030/2346/2835/27794/10,5541,588/24,7801,667/29,884988/17,998980/16,964
  Crude1.00NA0.801.010.800.4451.000.820.710.700.73<0.001
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.44–1.48)(0.58–1.75)(0.45–1.42)(reference)(0.76–0.90)(0.65–0.77)(0.64–0.77)(0.67–0.81)
  Multivariableb1.00NA0.791.460.950.8821.000.930.860.850.860.002
   (95% CI)(reference)(0.39–1.60)(0.75–2.85)(0.48–1.87)(reference)(0.85–1.01)(0.79–0.94)(0.77–0.94)(0.78–0.95)
  • NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, data are reported as OR (95% CI) for EAGLE and HR (95% CI) for AARP.

  • Abbreviation: NA, not applicable.

  • aNut consumption in sex-specific quintiles based on distribution of controls for each sex for EAGLE: quintile 1 (nonconsumers), quintile 2 (1–6 times/y), quintile 3 (7–11 times/y), quintile 4 (once a month up to 3 times a month), and quintile 5 (once a week up to 5 times a week, and once a day up to 2 or more times a day); nut consumption in sex-specific quintiles based on distribution of controls for AARP: quintile 1 (nonconsumers), quintile 2 (1–6 times/y), quintile 3 (7–11 times/y), quintile 4 (once a month up to 2–3 times a month), and quintile 5 (once a week up to 6 times a week, and once a day up to 2 or more times a day).

  • bAdjusted for age, sex, area of residence, education, BMI, cigarette smoking status, cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (continuous, 0 for never smokers), years since last cigarette smoked (continuous, 0 for never smokers), and intakes of red and processed meat, fruits, vegetables, and alcohol in EAGLE; adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI, energy intake, cigarette smoking status, cigarette smoking dose (categorical, 0 for never smokers), years since last cigarette smoked (categorical, 0 for never smokers), and intakes of red and processed meat, fruits, vegetables, and alcohol for AARP.