Table 2.

Multivariate regressions of cancer incidence on zoning provisions addresseda

Without smoking controlWith smoking control
Zoning provision addressedCoefficient95% CICoefficient95% CI
Crosswalks−1.27b−2.33 to −0.22−1.14b−2.25 to −0.03
Bike–pedestrian connectivity−0.88b−1.73 to −0.03−0.73−1.65–0.18
Street connectivity−0.68−1.50–0.13−0.59−1.41–0.23
Bike lanes−0.60−1.80–0.60−0.40−1.62–0.82
Bike parking0.13−0.84–1.110.40−0.58–1.38
Bike−pedestrian trails/paths−0.71b−1.41 to −0.01−0.49−1.23–0.25
Other walkability0.05−0.97–1.060.30−0.68–1.29
Mixed use0.46−0.63–1.550.74−0.35–1.83
Active recreation0.89−0.51–2.291.09−0.37–2.55
Passive recreation0.98−0.43–2.401.23−0.24–2.70
  • aN = 478 counties without smoking control and N = 477 counties with smoking control containing 72% of the U.S. population located in 46 states (45 with the smoking control) and the District of Columbia. Cancer incidence rates are annual rates per 100,000. Each row corresponds to two separate regression models, with and without a smoking control, but including all other county controls except inactivity. Coefficients correspond to a 10 percentage-point increase in county-level population exposure to the given zoning provision. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs.

  • bP < 0.05.