Table 1.

Characteristics of the study samplea

Variable% (or mean)SDMinimumMaximum
Outcome and mediator variables
 Cancer incidenceb (mean)434.9138.78268.20522.90
 Male cancer incidence (mean)488.5649.58328.80606.30
 Female cancer incidence (mean)398.5634.15280.40468.80
 Inactivity22.514.2410.1035.30
 Male inactivity20.793.839.3231.86
 Female inactivity24.024.7210.8038.38
Zoning provisions addressed
 Sidewalks69.4832.520100
 Crosswalks25.8733.480100
 Bike–pedestrian connectivity42.5037.540100
 Street connectivity40.3537.320100
 Bike lanes16.6429.140100
 Bike parking (proxy for street furniture)40.4238.620100
 Bike–pedestrian trails/paths56.8237.970100
 Other walkability (e.g, pedestrian plazas)67.7133.290100
 Mixed use64.8133.990100
 Active recreation81.2228.830100
 Passive recreation81.1029.110100
County controls
 West18.6238.97
 Midwest20.0840.10
 Northeast20.9240.72
 South40.3849.12
 Median household income tertiles:
  Low ($29,806.00–$48,450.00)33.0547.09
  Middle (>$48,450.00–$58,745.00)33.4747.24
  High (>$58,745.00–$122,238.00)33.4747.24
 % Households in poverty13.414.713.1831.67
 % Non-Hispanic white67.6219.153.5795.65
 % Non-Hispanic black12.0412.700.2769.45
 % Hispanic13.4414.740.8795.50
 Median age (mean)37.404.2224.4056.70
 Walkability scale (mean)1.001.020.7218.04
 Current smoking rate20.175.161.8041.60
 Male current smoking rate22.615.256.7044.50
 Female current smoking rate18.125.370.9038.30
  • aN = 478 counties, except 477 for smoking, 432 for male cancer, and 395 for female cancer.

  • bCancer incidence rates are annual rates per 100,000.