Table 1.

Description of neighborhood social and built environment measures

Contextual dataData sourceDescription of measure
Socioeconomic status2007–2011 ACS (29)Block group-level composite measure for income, education, poverty, employment, occupation, housing, and rent values (53)
Racial/ethnic compositionU.S. Census 2010 short-form data (54)Block group-level measures of % of each racial/ethnic group
Immigration/acculturation characteristics2007–2011 ACSBlock group-level measures of residential composition on % foreign-born; tract-level measure of ethnic enclave (Hispanic, Asian)
Population densityU.S. Census 2010 short-form dataBlock group-level measures of population size per square mile
Urbanization (rural/urban)U.S. Census 2010 short-form dataBlock group-level composite measure based on census defined urbanized area, population size, and population density
BusinessesDunn & Bradstreet annual business listings (1990–2008), via Walls & Associates (35)Residential buffer (1,600 m) measures of total businesses, total number of recreational facilities, retail food environment index (38), and restaurant environment index
Commuting by car2007–2011 ACSTract-level measures of proportion of population who drive to work (car, motorcycle, taxicab, and other)
Street connectivityNAVTEQ (32)Block group-level measure of walkability, using the gamma index (31)
ParksNAVTEQ (32)Residential buffer (1,600 m) measure of total number of parks
Farmer's marketsCalifornia Department of Food and Agriculture (36)Tract-level counts of farmers' markets
Traffic densityCalifornia Department of Transportation (33)Residential buffer (500 m) measure of volume of traffic (34)