Table 1.

Summary of China's three retrospective mortality surveys, 1973–2005

Survey1973–19751990–19922004–2005
Years covered332
Percentage of population surveyed96.7%10%6%
Average annual population surveyed849 million112 million71.4 million
Number of sampling sites (county or city)a2,392263158
Total number of lung cancer deaths among surveyed population139,01158,64643,993
Cancer death diagnosed at or above town/township level hospital92.54%97.4%98.54%
Cancer death diagnosed at or above county level hospital79.15%91%93.85%
Antemortem diagnosis was made by method Level I or Level IIb70.5%89.6%85.16%
Result of spot rechecks on mistakes in diagnosis and missing casesAbout 5%<5%<5%
Total lung cancer crude death rate (per 100,000 person-year)5.4617.5430.83
County-level lung cancer crude death rate (per 100,000 person-year)
 Minimum: male/female0/02.15/00/0
 Median: male/female4.67/2.2819.15/8.2535.45/15.14
 Mean: male/female6.06/3.0222.76/10.2539.40/18.30
 Maximum: male/female73.21/23.3293.95/41.8098.24/83.46
  • NOTE: Data source: refs. 45–48.

  • aThe surveys were carried out in all 29 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of mainland China in 1973–1975, 27 provincial-level regions (including the addition of Hainan province) excluding Tibet Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Qinghai province in 1990–1992, and all 31 provincial-level regions (including the addition of Chongqing municipality) in 2004–2005.

  • bLevel I, diagnosis was made by pathologic or cytologic examination of tissue specimens, including bone marrow; Level II, diagnosis was made by X-ray, ultrasound, isotope, scans, endoscopy, exploratory laparotomy (without biopsy), immunologic markers, or chemical laboratory tests.