Table 3.

Multilevel spatial logistic regression modelsa for HPV vaccination

1st Dose (initiation)2nd Dose3rd Dose
Variable (reference level)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)b,cUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)b,cUnadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)b,c
Age1.89 (1.83–1.96)1.89 (1.83–1.96)1.90 (1.83–1.98)1.91 (1.83–1.98)2.00 (1.91–2.11)2.00 (1.90–2.11)
Sex (male)
 Female1.37 (1.27–1.48)1.41 (1.30–1.53)1.51 (1.39–1.65)1.55 (1.42–1.71)1.59 (1.42–1.77)1.62 (1.44–1.81)
Race/ethnicity (white)
 Black0.99 (0.86–1.15)1.01 (0.86–1.19)0.81 (0.68–0.96)0.82 (0.68–0.99)0.70 (0.55–0.88)0.71 (0.54–0.90)
 Asian0.93 (0.78–1.12)0.94 (0.77–1.13)0.91 (0.74–1.12)0.91(0.73–1.13)1.01 (0.79–1.29)1.03 (0.78–1.32)
 Hispanic0.91 (0.79–1.04)0.99 (0.86–1.15)0.89 (0.76–1.04)0.99 (0.83–1.17)0.82 (0.67–1.00)0.90 (0.73–1.11)
 Other/unknown0.78 (0.67–0.90)0.77 (0.66–0.90)0.71 (0.59–0.85)0.70 (0.58–0.85)0.64 (0.50–0.81)0.64 (0.50–0.82)
Block-level variables
 Decreasing Median Incomed0.91 (0.88–0.95)0.88 (0.84–0.92)0.83 (0.79–0.88)
 % Unemployedd0.99 (0.96–1.03)1.00 (0.96–0.92)1.00 (0.94–1.06)
 % with ≤ high school educationd0.89 (0.84–0.93)0.86 (0.81–0.90)0.81 (0.75–0.87)
 % Uninsuredd0.93 (0.90–0.97)0.93 (0.89–0.97)0.92 (0.87–0.98)
 % Medicaid insuredd0.95 (0.92–0.99)0.92 (0.88–0.96)0.90 (0.86–0.95)
 % with household income in povertyd0.96 (0.92–.99)0.93 (0.89–0.97)0.90 (0.86–0.95)
 Low SES composite factord0.92 (0.89–0.95)0.90 (0.86–0.95)0.90 (0.86–0.93)0.88 (0.83–0.93)0.86 (0.81–0.91)0.85 (0.80–0.92)
 Rural status (urban) e1.15 (1.04–1.27)1.12 (1.01–1.24)1.17 (1.05–1.30)1.11 (0.99–1.24)1.21 (1.03–1.40)1.14 (0.98–1.32)
 % Nonwhited1.01 (0.97–1.06)1.09 (1.03–1.15)1.02 (0.97–1.08)1.13 (1.06–1.20)1.02 (0.95–1.10)1.14 (1.05–1.24)

Abbreviation: CI, confidence interval.

  • aBayesian spatial logistic model modeling log odds of initiating the HPV vaccination series.

  • bPoint estimates of the marginal posterior distribution– presented as ORs and 95% CIs.

  • cAdjusted for age, sex, race, low SES, rural status, and % nonwhite.

  • dORs represent the change in HPV vaccine initiation/completion for each quartile increase in the measure unless otherwise specified as a decreasing measure.

  • ePopulation density <1,000 people per square mile.