Table 3.

Multivariate regressions of cancer incidence on zoning provisions addressed, separately by gendera

MalesFemales
Without smokingWith smokingWithout smokingWith smoking
Zoning provision addressedCoefficient95% CICoefficient95% CICoefficient95% CICoefficient95% CI
Sidewalks−0.90−2.59–0.78−0.50−2.29–1.290.03−1.10–1.170.14−1.04–1.32
Crosswalks−1.25−2.66–0.15−1.01−2.50–0.48−0.29−1.15–0.56−0.24−1.09–0.62
Bike–pedestrian connectivity−1.30b−2.40 to −0.20−1.09−2.20–0.02−0.06−0.88–0.770.02−0.82–0.86
Street connectivity−1.22b−2.31 to −0.12−1.08−2.17–0.01−0.03−0.87–0.810.00−0.84–0.84
Bike lanes−0.93−2.68–0.81−0.69−2.43–1.040.18−0.88–1.250.30−0.73–1.33
Bike parking−0.32−1.61–0.970.02−1.27–1.310.79−0.05–1.640.95b0.11–1.79
Bike–pedestrian trails/paths−1.11b−2.19 to −0.03−0.73−1.78–0.32−0.13−0.78–0.53−0.05−0.73–0.64
Other walkability−0.60−2.20–1.00−0.28−1.85–1.300.84−0.03–1.710.95b0.06–1.84
Mixed use−0.39−1.94–1.170.00−1.48–1.480.89−0.08–1.861.06b0.11–2.01
Active recreation−0.38−2.38–1.620.02−2.01–2.051.18−0.06–2.421.26−0.01–2.53
Passive recreation−0.23−2.26–1.800.25−1.81–2.301.22−0.02–2.461.31b0.04–2.58
  • aN = 432/431 counties for males without and with smoking control, and N = 395/394 counties for females with and without smoking control, containing 68–70% of the U.S. population located in 41–46 states and the District of Columbia. Cancer incidence rates are annual rates per 100,000. Each row corresponds to four separate regression models, by gender, including all county controls except inactivity. Models were run separately using cancer incidence, inactivity, and smoking among males and females, respectively. Coefficients correspond to a 10 percentage-point increase in county-level population exposure to the given zoning provision. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs.

  • bP < 0.05.