Table 2.

Results of multiple linear regression (point estimate and 95% CI) of province-level area factors (1984–1996) on LCM rates (1990–2013)

1990–1992 lung cancer death rate (26 regions)2004–2005 lung cancer death rate (29 regions)2013 lung cancer death rate (29 regions)
MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
Area level factora and data sourceSlope (95% CI)Slope (95% CI)Slope (95% CI)Slope (95% CI)Slope (95% CI)Slope (95% CI)
1984–1985 China Statistical Yearbook
 % Female smoker0.81b (0.60–1.02)1.17b (0.78–1.56)0.68b (0.32–1.05)
 % Ind. labor1.39c (0.51–2.26)1.83b (1.35–2.31)
 % Serv. labor−2.76a (−4.08 to −1.44)
 Cons. p.c.0.08c (0.03–0.136)
 GDP p.c.0.007b (0.004–0.009)
 Med. persn.1.05b (0.55–1.55)0.45c (0.13–0.76)1.98b (1.31–2.65)0.66b (0.40–0.91)
 Waste water p.c.0.12c (0.05–0.19)
 Solid waste p.c.13.01c (3.27–22.75)6.52c (1.98–11.08)
 Adj. R20.7860.8550.7360.7360.6490.768
1996 China Statistical Yearbook
 % Female smoker1.08c (0.25–1.92)
 % Ind. labor3.42b (2.59–4.26)1.38b (0.91–1.86)
 Med. persn.−3.34c (−5.96 to −0.72)−3.83c (−7.29 to −0.38)
 Literacy1.23b (0.71–1.74)0.47b (0.23–0.71)
 Adj. R20.7480.6080.4300.344
  • a% of active female smokers among female population (% female smoker), % of industry labor force in population (% ind. labor), % of service labor force in population (% serv. labor), consumption per capita (cons p.c.), GDP per capita (GDP p.c.), medical personnel per 1,000 persons (med. persn.), % of literate people in population 12 years and over (literacy), and solid waste and waste water per capita (waste water p.c. and solid waste p.c.).

  • bP < 0.001.

  • c0.001 < P < 0.05.