Table 3.

Neighborhood characteristics for breast cancer survivors with geocoded addresses (N = 4,354)

Neighborhood characteristicsn (%)
nSES, statewide quintiles, (Yang index,a block group)
 Quintile 1: lowest nSES209 (4.8)
 Quintile 2522 (12.0)
 Quintile 3898 (20.6)
 Quintile 41,278 (29.4)
 Quintile 5: highest nSES1,447 (33.2)
Neighborhood racial/ethnic compositionb (block group)
 Above state medians for all 3 groups (predominantly minority)530 (12.2)
 Other combinations682 (15.7)
 Above AAPI and African American state medians1,465 (33.6)
 Above AAPI state median970 (22.3)
 Below state medians for all 3 groups707 (16.2)
Percent of population foreign-born, statewide quintiles (census tract)
 Quintile 1: highest % foreign-born532 (12.2)
 Quintile 2693 (15.9)
 Quintile 31,040 (23.9)
 Quintile 41,066 (24.5)
 Quintile 5: lowest % foreign-born1,023 (23.5)
Population density, statewide quartiles (persons/km2, block group)
 Quartile 1: lowest population density1,139 (26.2)
 Quartile 21,356 (31.1)
 Quartile 31,112 (25.5)
 Quartile 4: highest population density747 (17.2)
Traffic density,c study-specific quintiles (500-m buffer)
 Quintile 1: highest traffic density871 (20,0)
 Quintile 2871 (20.0)
 Quintile 3871 (20.0)
 Quintile 4871 (20.0)
 Quintile 5: lowest traffic density870 (20.0)
Percent of population commuting by car, study-specific quintiles (census tract)
 Quintile 1: highest % commuting by car873 (20.1)
 Quintile 2868 (19.9)
 Quintile 3873 (20.1)
 Quintile 4868 (19.9)
 Quintile 5: lowest % commuting by car872 (20.0)
Number of total businesses within 1,600-m walking network distance, study-specific quintiles
 Quintile 1: lowest number of total businesses871 (20.0)
 Quintile 2867 (19.9)
 Quintile 3874 (20.1)
 Quintile 4871 (20.0)
 Quintile 5: highest number of total businesses871 (20.0)
RFEId within 1,600-m walking network distance
 0330 (7.6)
 <11,698 (39.0)
 1+1,836 (42.2)
 No businesses of interest490 (11.3)
REIe within 1,600-m walking network distance
 None1,197 (27.5)
 >0 but less than median among those with a value (0.15)1,383 (31.8)
 >0 and above median1,338 (30.7)
 No businesses of interest436 (10.0)
Number of recreational facilitiesf within 1,600-m walking network distance, sample-specific quintiles
 Quintile 1: lowest (none)576 (13.2)
 Quintile 2: (0.25–0.5)974 (22.4)
 Quintile 3: (0.75–1.25)1,066 (24.5)
 Quintile 4: (1.5–2.5)889 (20.4)
 Quintile 5: highest (2.75+)849 (19.5)
Number of parks within 1,600-m walking network distance
 None1,150 (26.4)
 1 park1,149 (26.4)
 2 parks906 (20.8)
 3 or more1,149 (26.4)
Street connectivity—gamma,g study-specific quintiles (block group)
 Quintile 1: lowest street connectivity871 (20.0)
 Quintile 2873 (20.1)
 Quintile 3864 (19.8)
 Quintile 4872 (20.0)
 Quintile 5: highest street connectivity874 (20.1)
Urbanicityh (block group)
 Small town/rural258 (5.9)
 City1,192 (27.4)
 Suburban2,449 (56.2)
 Metropolitan urban455 (10.5)
AAPI enclave index,i statewide quintiles (census tract)
 Quintile 1: highest enclave1,290 (29.6)
 Quintile 21,043 (24.0)
 Quintile 3899 (20.6)
 Quintile 4722 (16.6)
 Quintile 5: lowest enclave400 (9.2)
Hispanic enclave index,j statewide quintiles (census tract)
 Quintile 1: highest enclave215 (4.9)
 Quintile 2582 (13.4)
 Quintile 31,091 (25.1)
 Quintile 41,231 (28.3)
 Quintile 5: lowest enclave1,235 (28.4)
  • NOTE: Pathways study, KPNC, 2006–2013.

  • aYang SES index is a composite measure of 7 indicator variables for Census block groups (Liu education index, proportion blue collar job, proportion > 16 years in the workforce without a job, median household income, percent <200% of federal poverty line, median rent, median house value).

  • bNeighborhood racial/ethnic composition is based on the block group population being above or below state median for each nonwhite racial/ethnic group.

  • cTraffic density is based on traffic counts within a 500-m buffer in units of vehicle miles traveled per square mile.

  • dRFEI is a ratio of unhealthy food outlets (fast food restaurants, liquor stores, and convenient stores) to healthy food outlets (grocery stores and farmers' markets). 0 indicates that the neighborhood has no unhealthy food outlets, a ratio of <1 indicates that there are fewer unhealthy food outlets compared with healthy food outlets, whereas a ratio greater than 1 indicates that there are more unhealthy food outlets compared with healthy ones.

  • eREI is a ratio of the average number of fast food restaurants to other restaurants. 0 indicates that the neighborhood has no fast food restaurants; for neighborhoods with fast food restaurants, we used the median value of the ratio of fast food to other restaurants to split the sample into those living in neighborhoods with relatively fewer fast food to other restaurants, and those living in neighborhoods with relatively more fast foods to other restaurants, where the latter includes those who have a numerator value >0 and a denominator = 0.

  • fRecreational facilities included places where recreational activities could take place (e.g., fitness centers, sports clubs, yoga centers, dance schools).

  • gGamma is the ratio of actual number of street segments to maximum possible number of intersections, with a higher ratio indicating more street connectivity/walkability.

  • hUrbanicity is based on a combination of census-defined metropolitan areas and population density, with 5 categories: metropolitan urban (highest quartile of population density within a census-defined urbanized area with a population of one million or more), metropolitan suburban (the rest of the population within an urbanized area with a population of one million or more), city (census-designated places with >50,000 people outside of a metropolitan area with a population of one million or more), town (places with <50,000 people, outside of an urbanized area, and not the lowest quartile of population density), and rural (places with <50,000 people, outside of an urbanized area, and in the lowest quartile of population density).

  • iAAPI enclave index is a composite measure of 4 indicator variables for census tracts (% recent immigrants, % API language–speaking households that were linguistically isolated, % API language speakers with limited English proficiency, and % API).

  • jHispanic enclave index is a composite measure of 7 indicator variables for census tracts (% foreign-born, % recent immigrants, % households that were linguistically isolated, % of Spanish language–speaking households that were linguistically isolated, % all language speakers with limited English proficiency, % of Spanish language speakers with limited English proficiency, and % Hispanic).