Table 1.

Characteristics of the selected studies

Results
Author (year)DesignParticipantsInterventionAdherenceBiomarkersOther variables
Bower and colleagues (2014)Two-arm RCT; yoga intervention vs. health education control31 stage 0–II breast cancer patients (29 completed); mean age = 54.4 ± 5.7 y; BMI > 31; posttreatment; postmenopausal onlyIyengar yoga, supervised, group-based, 12 wks, 2 d/wk, 90 min77.5%IL6, CRP, TNF receptor type II, IL1, gene expressions, salivary cortisolFatigue, depression, stress, sleep, physical performance
Rogers and colleagues (2014)Two-arm RCT; exercise vs. usual care46 stage I–II breast cancer patients (42 completed); mean age = 56.2 ± 7.7 y; mean BMI = 31.2; at least 4 wks posttreatment; postmenopausal onlyCombined, 12 wks; aerobic exercise, 160 min/wk, moderate-intensity walking; resistance exercise with resistance bands, 2 d/wk92%IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFαFatigue, physical activity level, BMI, WHR, %BF, muscle strength, VO2max, depression
Ergun and colleagues (2012)Three-arm RCT; Resistance EG + education (REG) vs. Aerobic EG + education (AEG) vs. education only (ED)60 breast cancer patients (58 completed); aged 18 to 65 y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 26.6 ± 4.4 (REG), 28.6 ± 5.2 (AEG), 28.6 ± 5.1 (ED); posttreatment; postmenopausal onlyResistance exercise, supervised, 12 wks, 3 d/wk, 45 minNot reportedIL6, TNFα, and angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related moleculesNot reported
Aerobic brisk walking, home-based, 3 d/wk, 30 min
Education program was provided to all 3 groups for 30 min/wk
Guinan and colleagues (2013)Two-arm RCT; exercise vs. usual care26 stage I–III breast cancer patients (22 completed); mean age = 48.1 ± 8.8 y; BMI (kg/m2) > 35; 2 to 6 mo posttreatment; 69.2% postmenopausalAerobic program, 8 wks, from 35% to 75% HRR; supervised, 2 d/wk, 60 min; home-based, from 1 to 5 d/wkNot reportedInsulin, glucose, IR, HbA1c, CRPWC, SBP, DBP, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC:HDL-C ratio, TG
Karimi and colleagues (2013)Four-arm RCT; water-based exercise (EX) vs. ginger supplement (GS) vs. EX + GS vs. placebo40 stage I–II breast cancer patients; mean age = 48 ± 6 y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 32.4; posttreatmentAerobic exercise, water-based, 6 wks, 4 d/wk, 50%–75% HRRNot reportedAdiponectina,b and oxidative stress markersNot reported
Thomas and colleagues (2013)Two-arm RCT; exercise (EG) vs. usual care (CG)75 stage 0–IIIA breast cancer patients (68 completed); mean age = 56.4 ± 9.6 y for EG, 55.4 ± 7.6 y for CG; mean BMI = 30.6 ± 6.0 (EG), 29.4 ± 7.3 (CG); 6 mo posttreatment; postmenopausal onlyAerobic exercise (primarily walking), 24 wks, supervised 3 d/wk and home-based 2 d/wk, 45–150 min56%Insulin, glucoseb, IGF1b, IGFBP3b, IL6, CRP, TNFαWC, SBP, DBP, HDL-C, TG, metabolic syndrome score
Jones and colleagues (2012)
Irwin and colleagues (2009)
Nuri and colleagues (2012)Two-arm RCT; exercise (EG) vs. usual care (CG)32 stage I–IIIB breast cancer patients (29 completed); aged 50—65 y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 27.9 ± 3.5 (EG), 27.4 ± 3.4 (CG); 6 mo posttreatment; postmenopausal onlyCombined; aerobic walking exercise, supervised, 15 wks, 2 d/wk, 35 to 45 min, 45% to 65% THR; resistance training; 15 wks, 2 d/wkNot reportedInsulina,b, glucosea,b, IRWeighta,b, BMIa,b, WC, HC, WHRa,b, SBPa,b, VO2peaka,b, HDL-Ca,b, TGa,b
Rogers and colleagues (2012)Two-arm RCT; exercise (EG) vs. usual care (CG)28 stage I–IIIA breast cancer patients (22 completed); mean age = 56 ± 10.5 y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 33.9 ± 7.4 (EG), 30.3 ± 7.1 (CG); posttreatment; 86% postmenopausalCombined, 12 wks (supervised 6 wks, unsupervised 6 wks); aerobic exercise, 150 min/wk, moderate intensity; resistance exercise, 2 d/wk86.5%Adiponectin, HMWA, IL6, TNFα, leptinb, other inflammatory-related markersBMI, FM, WHR, muscle strength
Sprod and colleagues (2012)Two-arm RCT; Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise vs. standard support therapy (SST)35 stage 0–IIIB breast cancer patients (21 completed); mean age = 54.3 ± 3.6 (TCC) y, 52.7 ± 2.1 (SST) y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 24.9 ± 1.9 (TCC), 25.0 ± 1.4 (SST); 1 wk to 30 mo posttreatmentAerobic TCC exercise, supervised, 12 wks, 3 d/wk, 60 min, low to moderate intensity72%Insulin, glucose, IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IL6, and other cytokinesWeight, BMIb, FM, LM
Gomez and colleagues (2011)Two-arm RCT; exercise vs. usual care20 stage I–II breast cancer patients (16 completed); aged 40 to 60 y; 2–5 y posttreatment; postmenopausalCombined, aerobic (primarily cycle ergometer) and resistance exercise, 8 wks, 3 d/wk, 90 min, 70%–80% HRmax91%IL6, TNFα, and other cytokinesWeight, %BFb, FM, LMb, VO2peakb, muscle strengthb
Ligibel and colleagues (2008, 2009)Two-arm RCT; exercise (EG) vs. usual care (CG)101 stage I–III breast cancer patients (82 completed); mean age = 52 ± 9 (EG) y, 53 ± 9 (CG) y; BMI (kg/m2) > 25 or %BF > 30, mean BMI = 30.3 ± 5.9 (EG), 31.4 ± 6.8 (CG); 3 months post-treatment; 84% postmenopausalCombined, 16 wks; aerobic exercise, home-based, 90 min/wk; resistance exercise, supervised, 2 d/wk, 50 min73%Insulin, glucose, IR, adiponectin, HMWA, leptinWeight, BMI, %BF, WCa, HCa,b, WHR
Hutnick and colleagues (2005)Two-arm RCT; exercise (EG) vs. usual care (CG)49 stage I–III breast cancer patients; aged 25 to 80 y, mean age = 48.5 ± 10 (EG) y, 52.3 ± 9.2 (CG) y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 26.7 ± 5.4 (EG), 26.6 ± 4.1 (CG); immediately after treatmentCombined, aerobic and resistance exercise, 24 wks (supervised 12 wks and unsupervised 12 wks), 3 d/wk., 40–90 min, 60%–75% functional capacityNot reportedIL6 and lymphocyte activation markersWeight, BMI, %BF, muscle strength*
Schmitz and colleagues (2005)Two-arm RCT; immediate exercise (IE) vs. delayed exercise (DE)85 stage I–III breast cancer patients (78 completed); mean age = 53.3 ± 8.7 (IE) y, 52.8 ± 7.6 (DE) y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 25.9 ± 0.7(IE), 25.8 ± 0.7 (DE); 4–36 mo posttreatment; 77.8% postmenopausalResistance exercise, 24 wks (supervised 12 wks and unsupervised 12 wks), 2 d/wk, 60 min92%Insulin, glucose, IR, IGF1, IGF2b, IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3Insulin, glucose, IR, IGF1, IGF2b, IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP3
Fairey and colleagues (2003, 2005)Two-arm RCT; exercise vs. usual care53 stage I–IIIA breast cancer patients (42 completed); aged 50 to 69 y, mean age = 59 ± 6 y; mean BMI (kg/m2) = 29.2 ± 6.6; posttreatment; 12 mo postmenopausalAerobic exercise (recumbent or upright cycle ergometer), 15 wks, 3 d/wk, 15–35 min, 70%–75% maximal oxygen consumption98.4%Insulin, glucose, IR, IGF1b, IGF2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3b, IGF1:IGFBP3 ratiob, CRPWeight, BMI, skinfolds, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TGb, TC:HDL-C ratio, SBP, DBP, RHR, HRRb, VO2peakb
  • Abbreviations: %BF, percent body fat; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FM, fat mass; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c; HC, hip circumference; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HMWA, high-molecular-weight adiponectin; HRR, heart rate reserve; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LM, lean mass; RHR, resting heart rate; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WC, waist circumference; WHR, waist–hip ratio.

  • aSignificantly different within exercise group after intervention.

  • bSignificantly different between exercise and control groups after intervention.