Table 1.

Operationalization of and adherence to the WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations for cancer prevention in the CHANCES consortium

EPIC-Elderly
Rotterdam studySpainSwedenNetherlandsDenmarkGreeceNIH-AARP study
Operationalization of WCRF dietary recommendationsScoringn (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Total WCRF/AICR diet score
0–42.3 (0.6)2.5 (0.7)2.3 (0.5)2.2 (0.6)1.8 (0.7)3.0 (0.5)2.2 (0.6)
Limit the consumption of energy dense foods and avoid sugary drinks
 Energy density
  ≤125 kcal/100 g/d1.02,019 (52)1,689 (34)639 (21)969 (16)963 (6)2,790 (31)94,689 (30)
  >125 to ≤175 kcal/100 g/d0.51,572 (41)2,616 (53)1,769 (57)3,952 (64)7,927 (54)6,019 (67)171,733 (54)
  >175 kcal/100 g/d0283 (7)651 (13)706 (23)1,229 (20)5,875 (40)232 (3)53,294 (17)
 Sugary drink intake
  0 g/d1.02,068 (53)1,839 (37)54 (2)590 (10)384 (3)none2,971 (1)
  ≤250 g/d0.51,712 (44)2,884 (58)2,698 (87)4,361 (71)11,941 (81)8,435 (93)107,467 (34)
  >250 g/d094 (2)233 (5)362 (12)1,199 (20)2,440 (17)606 (7)209,278 (65)
Eat mostly foods of plant origin
 Fruit and vegetable intake
  ≥400 g/d1.02,188 (56)3,519 (71)493 (16)2,355 (38)4,952 (34)8,266 (91)236,467 (74)
  200–400 g/d0.51,491 (38)1,109 (22)1,210 (39)3,118 (51)6,334 (43)706 (8)66,817 (21)
  <200 g/d0.0195 (5)328 (7)1,411 (45)677 (11)3,479 (24)69 (1)16,432 (5)
 Dietary fiber intake
  ≥25 g/d1.0175 (5)2,011 (41)571 (18)1,761 (29)6,817 (46)1,604 (18)68,055 (21)
  ≥12.5–<25 g/d0.52,988 (77)2,693 (54)2,028 (65)4,174 (68)7,361 (50)6,641 (73)175,280 (55)
  <12.5 g/d0.0711 (18)252 (5)515 (17)215 (4)587 (4)796 (9)76,381 (24)
Limit the intake of red meat and avoid processed meat
 Red and processed meat intake: Red meat < 500 g/wk and processed meat < 3 g/d1.0408 (11)599 (12)49 (2)671 (11)372 (3)6,882 (76)30,264 (9)
 Red meat < 500 g/wk and processed meat 3 to <50 g/d0.5682 (18)2,405 (49)2,511 (81)2,445 (40)3,788 (26)935 (10)175,467 (55)
 Red meat ≥ 500 g/wk or processed meat ≥ 50 g/d0.02,784 (72)1,952 (39)554 (18)3,031 (49)10,605 (72)1,224 (14)113,985 (36)
Limit alcoholic drinks
 Ethanol intake: ≤20 g/d (men)1.02,864 (74)3,563 (72)3,063 (98)4,560 (74)8,097 (55)7,884 (87)256,907 (80)
 Ethanol intake: ≤10 g/d (women)
 Ethanol intake: 20 to ≤30 g/d (men)0.5513 (13)491 (10)45 (1)744 (12)2,701 (18)519 (6)25,866 (8)
 Ethanol intake: 10 to ≤20 g/d (women)
 Ethanol intake: >30 g/d (men)0.0497 (13)902 (18)6 (0.2)846 (14)3,967 (27)638 (7)36,943 (12)
 Ethanol intake: >20 g/d (women)