Table 2.

Main results of studies reporting associations of TL and prognostic factors (N = 33)

Number of studies reporting association of the factor with short telomeresNumber of studies reporting association of the factor with long telomeresNumber of studies reporting no association of the factor with TL
Prognostic factorsTotal number of studiesWithout adjustmentWith adjustmentWithout adjustmentWith adjustmentWithout adjustmentWith adjustment
Peripheral blood (n = 13)
 Age5311
 Ethnicity21a1
 Physical activity312
 BMI11
 Smoking/nicotine intake33
 Alcohol intake11
 Mood disturbances33
 Perceived stress211
 Sleep22
 Fatigue11
 Psychosocial intervention312
 Tumor size11
 Nodal involvement11
 Stage33
 Histologic type11
 Molecular subtype431
 Chemotherapy413
 Hormonal therapy22
 Treatment received22
 Comorbid conditions11
Breast tumor tissue (n = 20)
 Age11191
 Ethnicity33
 Menopausal status22
 Weight11
 Hereditary/family history211
 Metastasis11
 Local recurrence11b
 Tumor size927
 Nodal involvement10217
 Stage1037
 Tumor grade10118
 Histologic type55
 Molecular subtype1231c8
 Chemotherapy22
 Hormonal therapy11
  • NOTE: If study reported results before and after adjustment, only adjusted results presented.

  • Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

  • aBlack versus white patients.

  • bIn normal breast tissue adjacent to tumor.

  • cAlternative lengthening of telomeres phenotype.