Table 1.

Characteristics of the study population (N = 8,322)

CharacteristicsTotal, no. (%) or median (95% CI)White, no. (%) or median (95% CI)Black, no. (%) or median (95% CI)P
Study population8,322 (100.0)6,867 (82.5)1,455 (17.5)
Vital status<0.001
 Alive2,987 (35.9)2,528 (36.8)459 (31.5)
 Deceased5,335 (64.1)4,339 (63.2)996 (68.5)
Median death time (months)31.3 (29.9–32.4)32.2 (31.0–34.4)26.4 (23.9–29.4)
Gender0.063
 Male4,610 (55.4)3,772 (54.9)838 (57.6)
 Female3,712 (44.6)3,095 (45.1)617 (42.4)
Age at diagnosis<0.001
 30–643,157 (37.9)2,439 (35.5)718 (49.4)
 65–743,090 (37.1)2,636 (38.4)454 (31.2)
 75–852,075 (24.9)1,792 (26.1)283 (19.4)
Tumor grade<0.001
 Well differentiated722 (8.7)613 (8.9)109 (7.5)
 Moderately differentiated2,348 (28.2)1,992 (29.0)356 (24.5)
 Poorly differentiated2,411 (29.0)2,000 (29.1)411 (28.3)
 Undifferentiated264 (3.2)222 (3.2)42 (2.9)
 Unknown2,577 (31.0)2,040 (29.7)537 (36.9)
Surgery<0.001
 No3,619 (43.5)2,843 (41.4)776 (53.3)
 Yes4,703 (56.5)4,024 (58.6)679 (46.7)
Place of residence<0.001
 Urban4,468 (53.7)3,503 (51.0)965 (66.3)
 Suburban2,492 (29.9)2,215 (32.3)277 (19.0)
 Rural1,362 (16.4)1,149 (16.7)213 (14.6)
Social environment (census tract-level)
Educational attainmenta<0.001
 1st quartile (highest)1,803 (21.7)1,568 (22.8)235 (16.2)
 22,141 (25.7)1,749 (25.5)392 (26.9)
 32,355 (28.3)1,868 (27.2)487 (33.5)
 4th quartile2,023 (24.3)1,682 (24.5)341 (23.4)
Elderly concentrationb<0.001
 1st quartile (lowest)1,881 (22.6)1,568 (22.8)313 (21.5)
 22,228 (26.8)1,917 (28.0)311 (21.4)
 32,213 (26.6)1,825 (26.6)388 (26.7)
 4th quartile2,000 (24.0)1,557 (22.7)443 (30.5)
Economic deprivationc<0.001
 1st quartile (lowest)2,770 (33.3)2,642 (38.5)128 (8.8)
 22,281 (27.4)2,074 (30.2)207 (14.2)
 31,887 (22.7)1,474 (21.5)413 (28.4)
 4th quartile1,384 (16.6)677 (9.9)707 (48.6)
Residential segregationd<0.001
 1st quartile (lowest)2,558 (30.7)2,490 (36.3)68 (4.7)
 22,262 (27.1)2,076 (30.2)186 (12.8)
 32,065 (24.8)1,673 (24.4)392 (26.9)
 4th quartile1,437 (17.3)628 (9.2)809 (55.6)
Combined RS and EDe<0.001
 Low RS – Low ED4,159 (50.0)3,973 (57.9)186 (12.8)
 Low RS – High ED661 (7.9)593 (8.6)68 (4.7)
 High RS – Low ED892 (10.7)743 (10.8)149 (10.2)
 High RS – High ED2,610 (31.4)1,558 (22.7)1,052 (72.3)
  • Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; ED, economic deprivation; no., number; RS, residential segregation.

  • aLatent variable includes the following census variables: percent individuals with a high school degree or lower (+), and percent individuals with a college degree or higher (−).

  • bLatent variable includes the following census variables: percent 65 or older (+) and percent female widows (+).

  • cLatent variable includes the following census variables: percent households below the poverty level (+), percent households with a female head of house with children (+), percent households on public assistance (+), and percent married (−).

  • dCensus tract-level residential segregation was measured using the isolation index.

  • eCombined variable includes residential segregation and economic deprivation latent variables where low = first and second quartiles and high = third and fourth quartiles.