Table 1.

Risk of overall and hormone receptor subtype–invasive breast cancer with exposures to particulate matter and roadway proximity among 115,921 women in the NHSII followed 1993–2011

Invasive breast cancerER+/PR+ invasive breast cancerER/PR invasive breast cancer
ExposureCasesBasica HR (95% CI)Multivariableb HR (95% CI)CasesBasica HR (95% CI)Multivariableb HR (95% CI)CasesBasica HR (95% CI)Multivariableb HR (95% CI)
48-month average
 PM10 (per 10 μg/m3)3,4160.98 (0.92–1.04)1.00 (0.93–1.07)1,8531.02 (0.94–1.11)1.05 (0.95–1.15)4920.94 (0.79–1.11)0.97 (0.80–1.18)
 PM2.5–10 (per 10 μg/m3)3,4161.01 (0.93–1.09)1.06 (0.96–1.17)1,8531.07 (0.96–1.19)1.13 (0.99–1.29)4920.91 (0.73–1.13)0.96 (0.73–1.26)
 PM2.5 (per 10 μg/m3)3,4160.89 (0.78–1.01)0.90 (0.79–1.03)1,8530.92 (0.77–1.10)0.95 (0.79–1.14)4920.99 (0.70–1.39)0.97 (0.68–1.40)
Proximity to A1–A3 roads (m)
 0–493410.92 (0.82–1.03)0.95 (0.85–1.07)1940.98 (0.84–1.14)1.01 (0.86–1.18)520.95 (0.71–1.28)1.02 (0.75–1.37)
 50–1997771.00 (0.92–1.09)1.00 (0.92–1.09)4311.05 (0.93–1.17)1.04 (0.93–1.16)1000.87 (0.69–1.09)0.91 (0.72–1.14)
 ≥2001,954ReferenceReference1,050ReferenceReference289ReferenceReference
Proximity to A1–A2 roads (m)
 0–49431.06 (0.78–1.43)1.14 (0.84–1.54)190.87 (0.55–1.36)0.93 (0.59–1.47)81.36 (0.67–2.73)1.44 (0.71–2.92)
 50–1991771.14 (0.97–1.32)1.16 (1.00–1.35)1021.21 (0.99–1.48)1.23 (1.00–1.50)251.12 (0.75–1.69)1.18 (0.79–1.78)
 ≥2002,852ReferenceReference1,554ReferenceReference408ReferenceReference
Proximity to A1 roads (m)
 0–4981.52 (0.76–3.05)1.60 (0.80–3.21)41.40 (0.52–3.75)1.48 (0.55–3.97)141.41 (0.83–2.41)c1.52 (0.89–2.60)c
 50–199761.10 (0.87–1.38)1.11 (0.89–1.40)401.07 (0.78–1.47)1.08 (0.79–1.48)
 ≥2002,988ReferenceReference1,631ReferenceReference427ReferenceReference
  • NOTE: Distance to road measures were only calculated for women with a street level geocode or better (N = 111,545).

  • Abbreviations: ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.

  • aAdjusted for current age, race, and calendar period.

  • bAdditionally adjusted for history of benign breast disease, family history, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, height, BMI at age 18, current BMI, alcohol consumption at ages 15 to 17 and 18 to 22, overall diet quality (AHEI-2010), oral contraceptive use, menopausal status and hormone use, smoking status, physical activity, individual-level socioeconomic status (marital status, living arrangements, household income) and area-level socioeconomic status (census tract level median income and median home value), and region of residence.

  • cThe two closest proximity categories were consolidated due to small case numbers.