Table 2.

Risk of invasive breast cancer by menopausal status with exposures to particulate matter and roadway proximity among women in the NHSII

PremenopausalPostmenopausal
ExposureCasesBasica HR (95% CI)Multivariableb HR (95% CI)CasesBasica HR (95% CI)Multivariableb HR (95% CI)
48-month average
 PM10 (per 10 μg/m3)1,9660.98 (0.90–1.07)1.03 (0.93–1.13)1,2960.99 (0.89–1.10)0.97 (0.86–1.09)
 PM2.5–10 (per 10 μg/m3)1,9660.98 (0.87–1.09)1.07 (0.93–1.22)1,2961.08 (0.96–1.22)1.07 (0.92–1.25)
 PM2.5 (per 10 μg/m3)1,9660.98 (0.83–1.16)0.99 (0.83–1.18)1,2960.75 (0.60–0.93)0.76 (0.61–0.95)
Proximity to A1–A3 roads (m)
 0–491940.98 (0.84–1.14)1.01 (0.86–1.17)1300.83 (0.69–1.00)0.87 (0.72–1.05)
 50–1994711.09 (0.98–1.22)1.08 (0.97–1.21)2730.88 (0.76–1.01)0.88 (0.77–1.01)
 ≥2001,082ReferenceReference782ReferenceReference
Proximity to A1–A2 roads (m)
 0–49251.18 (0.79–1.75)1.23 (0.83–1.83)171.03 (0.64–1.67)1.14 (0.70–1.84)
 50–1991061.20 (0.99–1.47)1.20 (0.98–1.46)621.01 (0.78–1.30)1.06 (0.82–1.38)
 ≥2001,616ReferenceReference1,106ReferenceReference
Proximity to A1 roads (m)
 0–4951.80 (0.74–4.35)1.74 (0.72–4.21)31.34 (0.43–4.17)1.48 (0.47–4.62)
 50–199491.27 (0.95–1.69)1.26 (0.94–1.67)250.93 (0.62–1.38)0.97 (0.65–1.45)
 ≥2001,693ReferenceReference1,157ReferenceReference
  • NOTE: Distance to road measures were only calculated for the 115,921 women with a street level geocode or better (N = 111,545), and women can contribute person-time to both pre- and postmenopausal models.

  • aAdjusted for current age, race, and calendar period.

  • bAdditionally adjusted for history of benign breast disease, family history, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, height, BMI at age 18, current BMI, alcohol consumption at ages 15 to 17 and 18 to 22, overall diet quality (AHEI-2010), oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone use, smoking status, physical activity, individual-level socioeconomic status (marital status, living arrangements, household income) and area-level socioeconomic status (census tract level median income and median home value), and region of residence.