Table 1.

Characteristics and findings of included prospective studies

Author, yearStudy name, data collection years, sample size, years follow-up, guidelinesRelevant outcome(s)Key findings
1McCullough, 2011CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, 1992–1993, n = 111,966, 14 years, ACS 8-point scoreAll cancer mortalityMen: RR = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.61–0.80
Women: RR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.65–0.89
2Thomson, 2014WHI, 1993–1998, n = 65,838, 12.6 years, ACS 8-point scoreAll cancer incidence, and mortality, site-specific cancer incidenceCancer incidence: HR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.75–0.92
Cancer mortality: HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.71–0.90
Colorectal: HR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.32–0.73
Breast: HR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.67–0.92
Endometrial: HR = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.49–1.09
Ovarian: HR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.68–1.87
Lung: HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 0.81–1.60
3Kabat, 2015NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, 1995–1996, n = 476,396, 10.5–12.6 years, ACS 11-point scoreAll cancer incidence, site-specific cancer incidence, all cancer mortalityAll cancer incidence:
 Men HR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.87–0.93
 Women HR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.77–0.84
All cancer mortality:
 Men HR = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.70–0.80
 Women HR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.70–0.83
Colon:
 Men HR = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.47–0.59
 Women HR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.54–0.78
Rectal:
 Men HR = 0.60, 95% CI, 0.51–0.72
 Women HR = 0.64, 95% CI, 0.49–0.83
Lung:
 Men HR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.78–0.93
 Women HR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.84–1.05
Breast: HR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.87
Endometrial: HR = 0.40, 95% CI, 0.34–0.46
Ovarian: HR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.73–1.23
4Hastert, 2013VITAL cohort, 2000–2002, n = 30,797 postmenopausal women, 7.7 years, WCRF/AICR Met/did not meetBreast cancer incidenceHR = 0.40, 95% CI, 0.25–0.65
5Hastert, 2014VITAL cohort, 2000–2002, n = 57,841, 7.7 years, WCRF/AICR met/did not meetAll cancer mortalityHR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.24–0.62
6Makarem, 2015FOS cohort, 1991, n = 2,983, 11.5 years, WCRF/AICR 7-point scoreIncidence of obesity-related cancers and site-specific: breast, prostate, and colonObesity-related: HR = 0.94, CI, 0.86–1.02
Breast: HR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.74–1.03
Prostate: HR = 1.08, 95% CI, 0.92–1.27
Colorectal: HR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.68–1.12
7Harris, 2016SMC, 1987–1990, n = 31,514, 15 years, WCRF/AICR 7-point scoreBreast cancer incidenceHR = 0.49, 95% CI, 0.35–0.70
8Catsburg, 2014Canadian NBSS, 1980–1985, n = 47,130 WCRF/AICR and n = 46,298 ACS, 16.6 yearsBreast cancer incidenceACS: HR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.49–0.97
WCRF/AICR: HR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.47–1.00
9Vergnaud, 2013EPIC Study, 1992–2000, n = 378,864, 12.8 years, WCRF/AICR 6-point score for men, 7-point score for womenAll cancer mortalityTotal: HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.69–0.93
Men: HR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.69–1.07
Women: HR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.62–0.93
10Romaguera, 2012EPIC Study, 1992–2000, n = 386,355, 11.0 years, WCRF/AICR 6-point score for men, 7-point score for womenAll cancer incidence, site-specific cancer incidenceAll cancer incidence:
 Men HR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.72–0.99
 Women HR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.72–0.91
Colorectal: HR = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.65–0.81
Lung: HR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.74–1.00
Breast: HR = 0.84, 95% CI, 0.78–0.90
Endometrial: HR = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.62–0.94
Ovarian: HR = 0.99, 95% CI, 0.79–1.25
Prostate: HR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.91–1.14
11Nomura, 2016IWHS, 1986, n = 36,626 post-menopausal, >23 years, WCRF/AICR 8-point scoreBreast cancer incidenceHR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.67–0.87
12Warren Andersen, 2016SCCS, 2002–2009, n = 61,098 low-income racially diverse adults, 6 years, ACS 4-point scoreAll cancer incidenceHR = 0.96, 95% CI, 0.65–1.42a
HR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.31–0.99b
  • aTotal analytic population. Ptrend = 0.09.

  • bParticipants without chronic disease at baseline. Ptrend = 0.003.