Table 2.

Associations of smoking, gender, and race with high and low levels of (A) creatine riboside and (B) NANA in controls only

A
Creatine ribosideHigh n (%)Low n (%)χ2P
Smoking
 Current53 (37.9)87 (62.1)21.2<0.0001
 Former15 (15.2)84 (84.9)
 Never16 (16.5)81 (83.5)
Gender
 Male60 (30.9)134 (69.1)8.70.003
 Female26 (17.1)126 (82.9)
Race
 European Americans21 (14.4)125 (85.6)16.4<0.0001
 African Americans63 (33.9)123 (66.1)
B
NANAHigh n (%)Low n (%)χ2P
Smoking
 Current43 (30.7)97 (69.3)6.20.05
 Former26 (26.3)73 (73.7)
 Never16 (16.5)81 (83.5)
Gender
 Male51 (26.3)143 (73.7)0.710.40
 Female34 (22.4)118 (77.6)
Race
 European Americans35 (24.0)111 (76.0)0.150.70
 African Americans48 (25.8)138 (74.2)
  • NOTE: Levels were dichotomized into high and low based on the 75th percentile of the control abundances. Bold text designates a significant P value.