Table 2.

Modifiers of facilitators and barriers associated with participation in colorectal cancer screening, with exemplary quotes

ModifiersExemplary quote
FacilitatorsPublic education raises awareness and addresses misconceptions and unrealistic fears (10, 18, 31, 37, 65, 86)“The more it's in the media, the more socially acceptable it is to talk about it [CRC]” (31)
PCP recommendation motivate individuals to get screened (10, 11, 18, 19, 31, 34, 36–38, 43, 54–56, 60, 65, 68, 71, 75, 121)“If my doctor says to… I'd go ahead and have one done.” (34)
Interpersonal communication with PCP (12, 48, 63, 69, 78, 81, 90, 97, 108, 124)“Talking to the patient in the language the patient can understand…that's the key.” (81)
Friends, family, and partners are important source of information and emotional support (18, 38, 49, 61, 81, 128)“If she [spouse] says, ‘Ah, I'm not going to do it’, I say, ‘Ah, neither am I', but if she says, ‘I'm going to do it’, I say, ‘Ah, me too” (13)
BarriersLittle public education about CRC compared with other cancers (13, 17, 19, 31, 43–45, 59, 64, 65, 69, 80, 85, 99, 101, 102, 107)“I couldn't tell you what could cause colon cancer because they don't talk much about this subject. Talk about other types of cancer is more common” (44)
Lack of physician's recommendation and approach was a powerful deterrent for CRC screening participation (9, 16, 18, 20, 31, 33, 36, 42, 45, 52, 59, 65, 70, 84, 90, 92, 99, 130)“My doctor never said anything to me about it. If he wanted me to have it, wouldn't he say something?” (65)
Friends, family, and kin accounts of a negative experience (31, 45, 60, 61, 70, 75–77) (36)I know people who found out they had cancer and they died in 2 months” (36)
PCP inadequate explanation (47, 67, 81, 90, 104, 126, 131)“You can go all high falutin' [sic] and talk about prostate-specific antigens, and if the patient doesn't understand what that means, he's going to get frightened.” (81)
  • Abbreviations: CRC, colorectal cancer; PCP, primary care physician.