Table 3.

Stratification analysis: HRs for mortality of cancer per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5 in male and female subjects

(i) Male
All subjectsNever smokerEver smokerInteraction
Causes of mortalitynHR (95% CI)PnHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)P
All malignant2,0431.31 (1.13–1.51)<0.0015531.23 (0.90–1.67)1,4901.33 (1.13–1.56)0.75
All digestive organs7911.29 (1.01–1.65)0.042611.23 (0.83–1.83)5301.32 (0.98–1.78)0.94
 Upper digestive tract1761.46 (0.98–2.18)0.06541.49 (0.79–2.81)1221.44 (0.88–2.35)0.31
 Lower digestive tract3111.21 (0.81–1.81)0.351051.13 (0.61–2.07)2061.23 (0.76–2.01)0.46
 Accessory organs2981.28 (0.83–1.96)0.261011.09 (0.55–2.18)1971.37 (0.81–2.32)0.98
Lung6771.36 (1.05–1.77)0.021001.19 (0.52–2.74)5771.37 (1.05–1.78)0.41
Male genital1431.02 (0.51–2.04)0.96640.75 (0.22–2.61)791.16 (0.49–2.78)0.86
Urinary871.03 (0.48–2.24)0.93220.41 (0.04–3.84)651.14 (0.56–2.35)0.23
Lymphohematopoietic1241.65 (0.93–2.94)0.09490.97 (0.36–2.63)752.05 (1.05–4.02)0.59
(ii) Female
All subjectsNever smokerEver smokerInteraction
Causes of mortalitynHR (95% CI)PnHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)P
All malignant2,4881.17 (1.03–1.32)0.022,0471.17 (1.02–1.34)4411.12 (0.82–1.52)0.38
All digestive organs9431.16 (0.96–1.41)0.138211.17 (0.96–1.44)1221.01 (0.59–1.71)0.26
 Upper digestive tract1471.37 (0.91–2.05)0.131271.35 (0.89–2.04)201.25 (0.36–4.27)0.52
 Lower digestive tract4080.88 (0.64–1.23)0.463540.91 (0.64–1.28)540.72 (0.26–2.02)0.63
 Accessory organs3781.37 (1.05–1.80)0.023321.36 (1.01–1.84)461.39 (0.79–2.45)0.58
Lung7310.99 (0.77–1.27)0.925231.01 (0.76–1.36)2080.95 (0.61–1.47)0.99
Breast1111.80 (1.26–2.55)0.001991.66 (1.10–2.50)127.14 (2.01–25.4)0.10
Female genital1381.73 (1.17–2.54)0.0061261.65 (1.07–2.55)122.48 (1.09–5.61)0.53
Urinary680.89 (0.45–1.79)0.75531.03 (0.54–1.96)150.35 (0.03–4.18)0.30
Lymphohematopoietic1861.12 (0.62–2.02)0.701611.17 (0.62–2.19)250.84 (0.26–2.75)0.99