Table 2.

Adjusted geometric mean concentration of plasma hormones by DASH dietary pattern score quartiles among up to 1,990 premenopausal women in the NHSII

DASH score
HormoneQ1Q2Q3Q4
rangeN(11.5–20.5)(21.0–24.0)(24.5–27.5)(28.0–36.5)Ptrend, median of QsPercent differencea and 95% CI
Follicular estradiol (pg/mL)1,39769.967.262.664.50.13−7.7% (−19.0% to 5.3%)
Luteal estradiol (pg/mL)1,5241521521541530.840.5% (−7.6% to 9.2%)
Follicular-free estradiol1,3610.730.730.670.730.52−0.2% (−9.7% to 10.4%)
Luteal-free estradiol1,5081.881.901.861.850.65−1.6% (−10.2% to 7.8%)
Follicular estrone (pg/mL)1,41748.347.545.045.90.11−4.9% (−11.9% to 2.6%)
Luteal estrone (pg/mL)1,57190.890.591.689.20.74−1.7% (−8.7% to 5.7%)
Follicular estrone sulfate (pg/mL)444761881833779*2.3% (−19.9% to 30.6%)
Luteal estrone sulfate (pg/mL)4491,6081,7291,4541,3610.14−15.4% (−37.3% to 14.2%)
Luteal progesterone (ng/dL)1,5871,1801,1761,2411,2410.185.2% (−4.1% to 15.4%)
DHEA (ng/dL)b3867748637577070.08−8.7% (−19.9% to 4.2%)
DHEAS (μg/dL)b1,0831241251241260.841.6% (−8.8% to 13.1%)
Testosterone (ng/dL)c1,95623.923.424.123.70.95−0.9% (−6.3% to 4.8%)
Free testosterone (ng/dL)c1,8980.190.190.190.190.810.3% (−6.6% to 7.6%)
Androstenedione (ng/dL)c6261261321281210.34−3.6% (−12.4% to 6.2%)
Prolactin (ng/dL)c1,30022.521.120.222.40.86−0.3% (−10.9% to 11.6%)
SHBG (nmol/L)c1,67571.869.272.370.40.93−1.9% (−8.3% to 5.0%)
  • NOTE: All geometric mean concentrations are adjusted for age at blood collection in years (continuous), BMI at blood collection in kg/m2 (<22.5, 22.5 to <25, 25 to <27.5, 27.5 to <30, 30+), total energy intake in kcal/day (continuous), smoking (never smoker, past smoker with ≥ 5 years since quitting, past smoker with <5 years since quitting, current smoker of <15 cigarettes per day, current smoker of 15+ cigarettes per day), alcohol use (nondrinker, ≤10 g/day, 10.1–20 g/day, >20 g/day), duration of past oral contraceptive use (never, <4 years, 4+ years), age at first birth/parity (nulliparous, 1–2 children and age at first birth < 25 years, 1–2 children and age at first birth > 25 years, >3 children and age at first birth < 25 years, >3 children and age at first birth > 25 years), age at menarche (<12, 12–13, >13 years), physical activity in MET-hours/week (<3, 3–<9, 9–<18, 18–<27, 27+), date of blood collection (month/year, ≤1/97, 2/97–1/98, 2/98–1/99, ≥2/99), time of day of blood collection (1–8 am, 9 am to noon, 1–4 pm, 5 pm to midnight), and fasting status (<10, ≥10 hours). Models that included luteal or average of timed samples also were adjusted for the difference between luteal blood draw date and date of next menstrual period (3–7, 8–12, 13–17, 18–21 days, unknown/untimed).

  • aPercent difference between Q4 versus Q1.

  • bLuteal/untimed.

  • cAverage of follicular and luteal measures, or untimed.

  • *P value for nonlinearity = 0.03 and P value for the overall significance of the curve = 0.06.