Table 2.

Baseline and 16-week differences in body composition measures between study groups

Baseline mean16 Weeks meanChange 16 weeks% Change 16 weeksTreatment effecta (97.5% CI): intervention vs. controlPbTreatment effecta (95% CI): mainly exercise vs. dietPc
Body weight, (kg)
 Control80.480.40.060.07
 Diet80.375.4−4.89−6.09−4.95 (−6.10 to −3.80)<0.001
 Mainly exercise80.474.9−5.52−6.87−5.58 (−6.73 to −4.44)<0.001−0.63 (−1.23 to −0.04)0.037
Body fat percentage (%)
 Control43.543.70.220.50
 Diet44.041.5−2.54−5.76−2.82 (−3.94 to −1.71)<0.001
 Mainly exercise43.939.8−4.11−9.38−4.38 (−5.50 to −3.27)<0.001−1.56 (−2.14 to −0.98)<0.001
VO2peak (mL/min)
 Control1,7611,682−78.6−4.46
 Diet1,7521,707−44.9−2.5632.0 (−64.1 to 128.0)0.310
 Mainly exercise1,7661,8851196.72198 (103–294)<0.001166 (117–216)<0.001
SQUASH moderate and vigorous activity (min/week)d
 Control27030030.011.1
 Diet184170−14.0−7.6−82.6 (−363.8 to 198.8)0.370
 Mainly exercise24849524799.6221.7 (55.8–499.3)0.015304.3 (157.9–450.7)<0.001
  • NOTE: Complete cases, that is, women with both baseline and follow-up measurements, are presented. Therefore, baseline values may differ from the values as presented in Table 1. Complete case data of weight was available for 232 (95.5%) women; fat percentage, n = 230 (94.7%); VO2peak, n = 219 (90.1%). NB, the results on body composition in this table are presented in more detail in an additional publication on hormone result (18).

  • aTreatment effect: the regression coefficient of a linear regression analysis with a 97.5% or 95% CI.

  • bP < 0.025 is considered significant for the comparison of both intervention groups versus control, a matching 97.5% CI is presented.

  • cP < 0.05 is considered significant for the comparison mainly exercise versus diet, a matching 95% CI is presented.

  • dOn the basis of the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire, activities performed ≥4 metabolic equivalents.